Month: August 2020

# Empirical Formula Used For Determination of Runoff

## Empirical Formula Used For Determination of Runoff

The following empirical formulas or equations are generally used for estimating the runoff from a catchment:

### 1. Dicken’s Formula

Q = C × A3/4

Where,

• Q = Runoff in cumec.
• C = a coefficient varies from 11.5 to 25.
• A = Catchment area in sq. km.

### 2. Ryve’s Formula

Q = C A2/3

Where,

• Q = Runoff in cumec
• C = a coefficient varies from 6.75 to 10
• A = Catchment area in sq. km.

### 3. Inglish Formula

$\large Q = \tfrac{123 A}{\sqrt{A + 10.4}}$

Where,

• Q = Runoff in cumec.
• A = Catchment area in sq. km.

### 4. Dredge or Burge’s Formula

$Q = 19.6\, \frac{A}{L^{2/3}}$

• Q = Runoff in cumec.
• A = Catchment area in sq. km.
• L = Length of the drainage basin in kilometers.

How to Calculate Annual Runoff – Problem & Solution

Burkli Ziegler Formula

How to Calculate Annual Runoff || Problem & Solution ||

# Units of Procurement of Common Materials Used in the Construction

## Units of Procurement of Common Materials Used in the Construction

1. Cement – Bag.

2. Sand – Cubic meter or Cubic feet.

3. Aggregates – Cubic meters or Cubic feet.

4. Earth – Cubic meter or Cubic feet.

5. Wood – Cubic meter or Cubic feet.

6. Ply, board – Square meter or square feet.

7. Bricks – Per 1000 Nos.

8. Reinf. Steel – Kg.

9. Steel (Angle, channel, beams) – Kg

10. Steel plates, sheets – m2 (Square meter).

11. M.S. Pipes, G.I. Pipes, C.I. Pipe, S.W. Pipes – R.M ( Running Meter)

12. Stones – Cubic meters or Cubic feet.

13. Plumbing and Sanitary fitting, hardware – No.

14. Paint ( in powder form) – Kg

15. Paint ( in liquid form ) – Litre.

16. Sealant, waterproofing compounds – Kg

17. Wax polish – Kg

18. French spirit Polish – Litre.

Unit of Measurement of Common Items of Civil Engineering Work

# Unit of Measurement of Common Items of Civil Engineering Work

## Unit of Measurement of Common Items of Civil Engineering Work

Following are some items of civil engineering work and their measuring unit:

1. Earth Work in Excavationm3 (Cubic meter).

2. Earth Work in Filingm3 (Cubic meter).

3. Brick work – m3 (Cubic meter).

4. Plastering work – m2 (Square meter).

5. Concrete work – m3 (Cubic meter).

6. Reinforcement – Kg (Kilogram).

7. Painting – m2 (Square meter)

8. Skirting – r.m. (running meter)

9. Flooringm2 (Square meter).

10. Brick work(4.5 ” thick) – m2 (Square meter).

11. Structural Steel Work – Kg (Kilogram).

12. Grills – Kg (Kilogram) or m2 (Square meter).

13. Doors and windowsm2 (Square meter).

14. Pointing workm2 (Square meter).

16. Retaining Wall – m3 (Cubic meter).

17. M.S pipes for steel structure – r.m. (running meter)

18. Water line, sewer line, drainage pipe – r.m. (running meter)

19. Railing – r.m. (running meter).

20. Soling work – m2 (Square meter).

21. ManholesNo. (Number).

22. Chambers – No. (Number).

23. Plumbing and sanitary fittings work – No. (Number).

# Different Word Symbols Commonly Used in Civil Engineering

## Different Word Symbols Commonly Used in Civil Engineering

Following are some word symbols commonly used in civil engineering:

1. V = Ventilator.
2. W = Window.

3. D = Door or Overall Depth or Dia
4. f = Stress.

5. r = Radius of Gyration.
6. Z = Section Modulus.

7. e = Eccentricity.
8. I = Moment of Inertia.

9. E = Modulus of Elasticity.
10. d = Effective depth or Dia.

11. L or l = Length.
12. B or b = Width.

13. T or t = Thickness.
14. Pbc = Permissible stress in bending compression.

15. Pbt = Permissible stress in bending tension.
16. Pc = Permissible stress in axial compression.

17. Pt = Permissible stress in axial tension. 18. P/F – Providing and Fixing.
19. P/L = Providing & Laying.

20. C/C = Center to center.
21. C/o = Construction of.

22. F/E = Fabrication and Erection.
23. N/S = Near Side.

24. F/S = Far Side.
25. B/F = Both faces.

26. N/F = Near Face.
27. F/F = Far Face.

28. C/F = Carried Forward.
29. L/J = Laying and Jointing.

30. l/r = Slenderness Ratio.
31. U/S = Upstream.

32. D/S = Downstream.
33. i/c = Including.

34. P/F – Providing and Fixing.
35. r.m = running meter.

36. No. = Number.
37. ɸ = Dia. of Plain M.S Bar.

38. Φ = Dia. of TOR Steel Bar.
39. @ = At the rate of.
40. ⊥ = Perpendicular to.

Others:

τ = Tau(τ) is the symbol of shear stress.

σ = Sigma(σ) is the symbol of normal stress.

ρ = Rho(ρ) is the symbol of density.

ε = Epsilon(ε) symbol is used to represent strain.

Short Forms of Words Commonly Used in Civil Engineering

Units of Procurement of Common Materials Used in the Construction

42 Types of Map Symbols

# Short Forms of Words Commonly Used in Civil Engineering

## Short Forms of Words Commonly Used in Civil Engineering

Here almost all the short forms of words are given, which are commonly used in civil engineering.

1. Approx. Approximately.
2. Agg. Aggregates.
3. Av. Average.
4. Alt. Alternative.

5. Arrgmt. Arrangement.
6. Al. Aluminum.
7. Acctts. Accounts.

8. Bott. Bottom.
9. Bkt. Bracket.
10. Bet. Between.

11. Bldg. Building.
12. Bk. Brick.
13. Bdy. Boundary.

14. Conc. Concrete.
15. Cont. Continuous.
16. Col. Column.

17. Const. Construction.
18. Comp. Compression.
19. Cheqd. Chequered.

20. Dia. Diameter.
21. Dn. Down.
22. Deptt. Department.
23. Dev. Development.

24. Dir. Direction.
25. Det. Detail.
26. Distn. Distribution.
27. Drg. Drawing.

28. Exp Expansion.
29. Eff. Effective.
30. Ext. External.
31. El. Elevation.

32. Eq. Equal or Earthquake.
33. Extg. Existing.
34. Equv. Equivalent.

35. Fl. Floor.
36. Flg. Flooring.
37. Fdn. Foundation.
38. Ftg. Footing.

39. Ht. Height.
40. Hr. Hour.

41. Int. Internal.
42. Incl. Including.

43. Jt. Joint.
44. Jn. Junction

44. Lev. Level.
45. Ltr. Litre.
46. Lm. Lumen.

47. Mts. Minutes.
48. Min. Minimum.
49. Max. Maximum.

50. Opng. Opening

51. Pr. Pressure.
52. Plg. Planning.
53. Pt. Part.
54. Perm. Permissible.

55. Reqd. Required.
56. Ref. Reference.
57. Rect. Rectangle.

58. Reinf. Reinforcement.
59. Reqmt. Requirement.
60. Ret. wall Retaining Wall.

61. Strp. Stirrup.
62. Sq. Square.
63. Sp. Specific.

64. Str. Structure.
65. Specn. Specifications.
66. Spl. Special.

67. Typ. Typical.
68. Thk. Thickness.
69. Temp. Temperature.

71. Wt. Weight.
72. W/C ratio Water Cement Ratio.
73. Wk. Work.

Tiles Flooring

Traffic Signs

Unit of Measurement of Common Items of Civil Engineering Work

# 12 Principles of House Drainage that You Should Know!

## Principles of house drainage

Following are the 12 principles of house drainage:

1. House sewers or drains should be laid as far as possible at the side of the building rather than below the building.

2. The size of the drain should be sufficient so that they can avoid flooding the drains during maximum discharge. Therefore, the size of the drain should be designed in such a way that it can easily handle the maximum discharge from the house.

3. The drain should be laid at a sufficient gradient in order to establish self-cleansing velocity in them. The self-cleansing velocity helps to keep the sewer clean.

4. As far as possible, drains should be laid in straight lines between successive inspection chambers.
5. As far as possible, sharp bends and junctions should be avoided except through chambers or manholes.

6. Drains should be constructed on a good foundation and protected against an external load.
7. Drains should be non-absorbent type.

8. The drain should be laid at such a level that the lowest level of the building may drain into it.
9. All sewer joints should be made watertight and checked correctly before the drainage line is put into service.

10. The house drain should avoid a direct connection to the public sewers. The house drain should be connected to the public sewer if the level of the house drain is higher than the level of the public sewer.

11. Enough traps should be provided.

12. Proper ventilation should be provided to the entire drainage system.

Method of Ventilation of House Drains

Method of Ventilation of Sewer

Different Types of Traps Used in Building Drainage

# What is a Partition Wall? 11 Types of Partition Walls

## What is the Partition Wall?

A partition wall may be defined as a wall or division, provided for the purpose of dividing one room or portion of a room from another. Partition walls may be built of bricks, studding, glass, or other such material.

Generally, the partition walls are designed as non-load-bearing walls. But it can be load-bearing walls. The load-bearing partition wall is designed in such a way that it can take the load which acts on it.

The partition wall may be constructed on any floor, it may be the ground floor or upper floor. It rests on a concrete floor or on beams spanning between main walls in the case of the ground floor. In the case of the upper floor, it rests on beams spanning between two columns.

The most functional use of partition walls is privacy from consideration of sight and sound both. Partitions may be broadly divided into the following two categories:

• (a) Those that are made of blocks, slabs, and laid in suitable mortars.
• (b) Those that are made of boards or of sheet materials.

Partitions made by Burnt clay blocks, cement blocks, lightweight concrete blocks, gypsum blocks, Wood wool slabs, etc. are of the category (a). While partitions made from wooden panels, plywood, gypsum boards, lathe and plaster, hard and soft boards, metal sheets, etc. are of category (b)

### Requirements of an ideal partition wall

1. It should be as thin as possible.
2. It should be soundproof.
3. It should be lightproof.
4. It should be easy to construct.
5. It should be economical.
6. It should provide adequate privacy.

## 11 Different Types of Partition Walls

Following are the 11 types of partition walls that are commonly used in building construction:

(1) Brick partitions.
(2) Hollow clay block partitions.
(3) Cement concrete partitions.
(4) Glass partitions.
(5) Timber partitions.
(6) Metal partitions.
(7) Plasterboard partitions.
(8) Straw-board partitions.
(9) Wood wool slab partitions.
(10) A.C. or G.I. sheet partitions.
(11) Plastic board partitions.

### (1) Brick partition

The common brick partition walls are half-brick thick. They may be made of plain brickwork or reinforced brickwork or brick-nogged type.

#### a. Plain Brick Partition

Plain Brick partition is made by laying plain bricks as stretchers with the help of a cement mortar in a ratio of 1:3 (cement: sand). The thickness of this wall is only 100 mm, and both faces of the wall are plastered.

These types of partition walls are not able to take a heavy load. It is possible to build this partition up to a continuous length of about 6 m. The height or length whichever, is smaller should not exceed 48 times the thickness of the brick. Its height is generally restricted to about 2 m.

#### b. Reinforced brick partition

This is the same as a half-brick thick plain brick partition wall, but some reinforcements are provided there in the form of a wire mesh or hoop iron, or steel bar.

Generally, 6 mm dia of steel bars are provided at every three or fourth course of the brick. This partition is stronger and more stable and durable than plain brick partition.

#### c. Brick-nogged partition

This types of partition consist of a wooden framework within which half brick masonry is fitted. The framework consists of head, sill, vertical member, and a horizontal member.

The head and sill are the top and bottom members, respectively, of the framework of the partition. The horizontal member of the wooden framework is known as nogging, and the verticle member of the framework is known as studs.

Generally, the size of the studs and nogging member is 150 x 120 mm and 150 x 50 mm respectively. Studs member are fixed at a horizontal interval of 1.5 to 2 m, and nogging member is fixed at a verticle interval of 1 m. Spaces that are created in between studs and nogging members are filled by half-brick partitions.

Read More: Characteristics of First Class Bricks

### (2) Hollow clay block partition

In this type, hollow clay blocks are used to make the partition walls. The hollow clay blocks are made by using clay or terra-cotta.

The blocks can be manufactured in any required shape and size, but their usual size of section is 30 cm × 20 cm and thickness varies from 5 cm to 15 cm. The blocks are provided with grooves which helps to join the different blocks rigidly.

The following are the advantages of Hollow clay block partition walls:

➤ Light in weight
➤ Non-shrinkable
➤ Soundproof
➤ Efficient in preventing fire

### (3) Cement concrete partition

When cement concrete is used to make the partition wall is known as cement concrete partition, and it is easy to construct.

Cement concrete may be used in the form of hollow blocks or in form of a solid thin concrete slab. Hollow blocks are constructed just like a hollow clay block (1: 3 cement mortar is used in block masonry). Partition of cement concrete may be either precast or caste-in-situ.

In the case of precast concrete work, plain cement concrete slabs are prepared in a suitable size and they are secured to the precast poles erected at suitable intervals. Slabs are secured in grooves of the poles. Sometimes, L or T-shaped units may be prepared and used to form a partition wall. The thickness of the solid concrete slab is about 40 mm.

In the case of cast-in-situ work, concrete walls are casted about 75 mm thick. These walls may or may not be provided with any intermediate concrete pole. If additional stability is required, then reinforcement is provided at the center of the thickness. This reinforcement should be provided both in vertical and horizontal directions.

### (4) Glass partition

When the partition wall is made of glass, it is called a glass partition wall. The glass may be used either in the form of thin sheets or in the form of hollow blocks.

For the sheet glass partition, a wooden frame is prepared, and thin glass sheets are then placed into its panels. The glass sheets are fixed to the panel using putty. Putty is made by mixing linseed oil and white chalk.

In this partition, glass sheets of different styles and colors can be used to get a decorative look.

The following are the advantages of glass partitions:

➤ These partitions are soundproof.
➤ Vermin-proof.
➤ Dam-proof.
➤ Light in weight.

### (5) Timber partition

A timber partition wall is a versatile and natural pick for dividing a large space in your home or office. timber is a sustainable and environmentally friendly material, it is renewable, recyclable, and has a lower carbon footprint compared to other building materials.

Timber, with its warm and timeless appeal, can create an inviting and relaxing atmosphere. You can choose from a variety of timber types, finishes, and designs to complement your existing decor or achieve a specific aesthetic.

Timber partitions are light in weight. They are cheap and easy to construct. But they are easily affected in damp conditions and are not good in fire resistance. They are not sound-proof to an appropriate extent.

Timber can be easily affected by some insects such as white ants. Due to such problems, sometimes homeowners these days prefer not to use timber partitions. Timber partitions can be divided into the following two categories:

1. Common partitions or stud partitions
2. Trussed partitions or braced partitions

The following are the advantages of timber partition

➤ The most important advantage of the timber partition wall is that they are light in weight and easy to construct.
➤ They are cheap.
➤ They are easily available.
➤ It can be easily moved elsewhere.

The following are the disadvantages of timber partition

➤ They are not soundproof.
➤ They absorb moisture and are eaten away by the white ant.
➤ They do not possess the fire-resisting property

Read More: Characteristics of Good Timber

### (6) Metal partition

The metal partition wall is another type of partition wall that is usually made of mild steel. Bronze is also a very popular metal used to make partition walls. Vertical posts are first erected and space between them is covered by fixing sheets of mild steel or bronze.

Metal laths can be conveniently used for forming partitions. Metal lath is available in a variety of patterns. In order to fix metal laths in position, they usually require a framework of steel or timber. After fixing, plastering may be carried out on both sides. Such partition maybe 50 mm thick. These partitions are suitable for office and industrial buildings.

The following are the advantages of the metal partition

➤ Light in weight
➤ Easy to construct
➤ Soundproof
➤ Fireproof
➤ Strong enough

### (7) Plasterboard partition

When the partition wall made by plasterboard is known as a plasterboard partition wall. Generally, the thickness of the plasterboard is around 50 mm to 100 mm. There are different types of plasterboard are available in the market.

Plaster of Paris or gypsum is used for the manufacture of these boards. When gypsum is used for the manufacture of the plasterboard then it is called ‘gypsum plasterboard’. This type of plasterboard is mostly used for partition walls as well as for false ceiling work.

In order to reduce the density, sawdust or some other fibrous material can be added to the gypsum. Plaster slabs are manufactured in moulds of iron or timber.

The surface of the plasterboard may be rough or smooth. If the partition is to be finished with plaster, its face surfaces are manufactured rough. If they are not to be plastered their surface should be finished. Plater boards may be fixed in wooden frames provided with grooves.

The following are the advantages of Plasterboard partition walls:

➤It is light in weight
➤Easy of installation
➤Lightproof
➤Easy to handle
➤ Well fire-resistant properties.

### (8) Straw Board Partition

The strawboard partition wall is mostly preferred where frequent removal of partitions is expected. It has good heat-insulation properties.

Straw boards or slabs are manufactured by compressing straw, applying proper adhesive and covering the surface with thick paper or hardboard. They can be fixed in a wooden frame or in a steel frame.

### (9) Wood Wool Slab Partition

These slabs are produced by mixing Portland cement to wood shavings or wood wool with a limited quantity of gypsum. The weight of this slab is about 4.8 kN/m3. When this type of slab is used to make a partition wall, it is called wood wool slab partition.

It has good sound insulation as well as fire-resistant properties. Since the weight of the slabs is light, the partition of these slabs is also light in weight. The size of units is of the order of 1.8 m * 0.6 m with thickness varying from 50 mm to 75 mm.

### (10) A.C And G.I Sheet Partition

A.C. or G.I. sheet partitions are another type of partition walls that are made by fixing asbestos cement sheets or galvanized sheets on a suitable supporting frame in single or double leaf.

They are durable and have good fire-resisting properties. These partitions can be used in the case of office and public buildings with a suitable decorative look. They may be fixed to permanent verticle posts or maybe clamped and attached to metal runners at the ceiling and floor levels.

➤ Well in fire-resistant even in high temperatures.
➤ Good in light-proof.
➤ It has good heat insulation properties.
➤ It is durable and flexible.

➤ Poor soundproof quality.

### (11) Plastic board partition

In this partition wall, a plastic board or a section of plastic is used, which is made of PVC and is manufactured in foamed and un-foamed types. In addition to making partition walls, this type of plastic section is also used for many other purposes, such as making a false ceiling, wall paneling, etc.

Thermal Insulation of Exposed Walls

15 Basic Components of a Building Structure

# Find out the Discharge of a Siphon Spillway – Problem & Solution

## Find out the Discharge of a Siphon Spillway

Mathematical Problem:

Find out the discharge of a siphon spillway from following data:

• Number of siphon units = 4.
• Area at throat in m2 = 3.
• Full reservoir level = 150 m.
• R.L of centre of outlet = 128.
• Tailwater level on D/S side during rains = 130.
• Tailwater level during winter = 125.
• Discharge coefficient = 0.60.

Solution:

Case 1

In rainy days outlet remains submerged and hence discharge depends upon the tailwater level.

Working head = R.L of reservoir – R.L. or T.W.L. = 150 – 130 = 20 m.

$Q = CA \sqrt{2gh}$

Or, $Q = 0.60\times 3 \sqrt{2g\times 20}$

Or, Q = 35.75 cumecs.

So, the discharge of four units = 4 × 35.75 = 143 cumecs.

Case II

In winter T.W.L falls down and spillways discharge free in the air.

Available head = Reservoir level – R.L of center of outlet = 150 – 128 = 22 m.

$Q = CA \sqrt{2gh}$

Or, $Q = 0.60\times 3 \sqrt{2 \times 9.81 \times 22}$

Or, Q = 37.5 cumecs.

Discharge of four units = 4 × 37.5 = 152 cumecs.

Standard Irrigation Water

How to Calculate Annual Runoff – Problem & Solution

How to Calculate Discharge of the Water if the Depth and Crop Period are Given

# Tiles Flooring | Building Construction

## Tiles Flooring

Tiles are pre-cast units of pottery or cement concrete or terrazzo. They are produced in square, polygonal, rectangular, and various other shapes, sizes, and thicknesses. Pre-cast units of terrazzo tiles are also known as mosaic tiles. The tiles made of pottery are known as white-glazed tiles. Tile flooring is mostly used in residential buildings, office buildings, hotels, etc. White glazed tiles are commonly used in bathrooms, kitchens, swimming pools, etc.

In the case of mosaic tiles, need to polish and fixed them in their position. Whereas, white glazed tiles are not required to polish. Floor tiles can be available in different colors. Usually, some colorful art is printed over it to get a better decorative look.

Read Also: Different Types of Flooring

### Method of Making Tiles Flooring

The method of making tiles flooring is almost similar to the making of stone flooring. Tile floorings require hard subgrade, before making a hard surface the ground is leveled, watered, and rammed properly.

A hard subgrade surface, which may be in the form of R.C.C. slab or cement concrete. Well consolidated layer of lime concrete, 100 mm to 150 mm thick covered by 2.5 cm to 4 cm thick cement concrete layer can serve the purpose of hard sub-grade.

Over the prepared subgrade surface, a thick layer of lime mortar about 12 mm to 25 mm is spread to act as bedding mortar. Now, it is almost ready to receive the tiles over it. Before placing tiles over it, this mortar is allowed to harden a bit and then a neat cement slurry is spread over it with the help of a brush or otherwise.

Now readymade tiles are laid on this mortar layer by applying thin cement paste along all of its sides. The tiles are gently tapped. The cement that oozes out through the joints due to tapping should be cleaned instantly.

After 2 or 3 days of laying the tiles, all its joints should be rubbed with carborundum stone so that a smooth finished surface of the floor may be obtained. The entire surface of the floor is then rubbed by hand or by a power-driven rubbing machine. The process of rubbing is also known as the polishing of the surface. Finally, The rubbed or polished surface should be washed with a solution of soap.

The following are the advantages of tile flooring:

1. This floor is non-absorbent.

2. Good looking, it gives a decorative look.

3. Durable.

4. Maintainance work is easy.

The following are the advantages of tile flooring:

1. It is very costly.

2. Maintenance cost is high.

3. It provides a slippery surface.

4. Skilled labor required.

### Characteristics of a Good Flooring Tiles

The following are the characteristics of good flooring tiles:

1. It should be hard enough.

2. It should be free from any bends and cracks.

3. It should be proper in shape and size.

4. It should have good durability properties.

5. It should have good heat-resistant properties.

6. They should produce a clear ringing sound when struck by each other.

7. It should be well burnt.

8. It should be uniform in color.

### FAQs

#### How many types of floor tiles are available?

There are several types of floor tiles are available in the market. the following are the 13 types of floor tiles:

1. Ceramic Tiles
2. Porcelain Tiles
3. Mosaic Tiles
4. Granite Tiles
5. Marble Tiles
6. Terrazzo Tiles
7. Onyx Tiles
8. Quartzite Tiles
9. Travertine Tiles
10. Quarry Tiles
11. Slate Tiles
12. Sandstone Tiles

#### Which types of tiles are best for shower walls?

Porcelain and glazed ceramic tiles are mostly recommended for use in shower walls. Glass tiles are also preferred for shower walls, as they give an attractive look to the wall.

Brick Flooring

Linoleum Flooring

Granolithic Flooring

# General Principles to be Observed in Wooden Joints

## General Principles to be Observed in Wooden Joints

Joints play an important role in the construction of the wooden structure. It increases the stability of the structure and improves aesthetic values. In the construction of wooden joints following points should be kept in view:

1. The joints should be constructed in such a way that the connected wooden members are weakened to the minimum possible extent.

2. The joint should be as simple as possible. This reduces labor costs as well as the inconvenience of work.

3. The difficult joint should be avoided as far as possible. A very complicated joint is not only a challenge to construct but also has the potential to shrink considerably.

4. Each abutting surface of the wooden joint should be placed in such a way that, as far as possible, the surface is perpendicular to the line of action of the force acting at the joints.

5. The surface of a joint should be constructed and fitted in such a way that the distribution of pressure on the surfaces should be even.

6. The joint should be strengthened by fastening in such a way that the joint does not fail by crushing or shearing.

7. The strength of the jointed members and the joint should be equal.