Month: June 2023

# Understanding the Concept of Cubic feet – Explained with Examples

Cubic feet are a unit of volume commonly used to measure the capacity of three-dimensional objects or spaces. It is derived from the measurement of length in feet and represents the volume of a cube with sides that are each one-foot long.

Cubic feet are frequently used in various fields, including construction, architecture, engineering, and everyday measurements. It is commonly used to quantify the volume of objects, such as rooms, buildings, containers, or any three-dimensional space. For example, the volume of a storage box or the capacity of a swimming pool may be measured in cubic feet.

In this article, we will discuss the concept of cubic feet, the formulas of cubic feet, and the application of cubic feet. Also, the topic will be explained with the help of a detailed example.

## What are cubic feet?

Cubic feet are a unit of volume that measures the three-dimensional space occupied by an object or an enclosed area. It is derived from the measurement of length in feet and represents the volume of a cube with sides that are each one-foot long. The term “cubic” refers to the fact that it involves three dimensions: length, width, and height.

The term “cubic” in cubic feet indicates that it involves three dimensions: length, width, and height. When these dimensions are multiplied together, the result is expressed in cubic units, such as cubic feet.

### Formulas of cubic feet

Cubic Feet of a Rectangular Prism:

If you have the measurements of the length, width, and height of a rectangular prism, you can calculate its volume (in cubic feet) using the formula:

Volume = Length × Width × Height

Cubic Feet of a Cylinder:

If you have the measurements of the radius (r) and height (h) of a cylinder, you can calculate its volume (in cubic feet) using the formula:

Volume = π × r² × h

Note: π is the constant and the value of pi= 3.14159.

Cubic Feet of a Cone:

If you have the measurements of the radius (r) and height (h) of a cone, you can calculate its volume (in cubic feet) using the formula:

Volume = (π × r² × h) / 3

Cubic Feet of a Sphere:

If you have the measurement of the radius (r) of a sphere, you can calculate its volume (in cubic feet) using the formula:

Volume = (4/3) × π × r³

Remember to ensure that all measurements are in the same unit (e.g., feet) before using these formulas to calculate the cubic

## Applications of Cubic Feet:

Cubic feet are a unit of volume commonly used in various applications. Now, we discuss some basic applications of cubic feet.

Construction and Architecture: Cubic feet are used extensively in construction and architecture to calculate the volume of various elements such as rooms, buildings, concrete pours, and construction materials. It helps in determining the required number of materials like concrete, paint, or flooring for a given project.

Shipping and Freight: Cubic feet are used in the transportation industry, particularly for determining the capacity and volume of shipping containers, trucks, and cargo holds. It helps in estimating the space required to transport goods and optimizing the loading and unloading process.

Storage and Warehousing: Cubic feet are used to measure the capacity of storage units, warehouses, and containers. It helps in determining how much space is available and how much can be stored. It is also used in calculating storage costs and optimizing storage layouts.

Packaging and Shipping Products: Cubic feet are used to determine the size and volume of packaging for products. It is essential for logistics and shipping companies to ensure that products fit into appropriate boxes or containers and to calculate shipping costs based on volumetric weight.

HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning): Cubic feet are used in HVAC systems to determine the volume of space for proper air conditioning, heating, and ventilation. It helps in sizing HVAC equipment and designing efficient systems.

Aquariums and Fish Tanks: Cubic feet are used to measure the volume of aquariums and fish tanks. It helps in determining the appropriate amount of water required, selecting the right filtration system, and calculating the space needed for fish and other aquatic animals.

These are just a few examples, but cubic feet are a versatile unit of volume that finds application in various fields where measuring volume is necessary.

## How to Find Cubic Feet?

Example 1:

Calculate the cubic feet of the given measurements of a room.

Length = 13ft, Width = 6ft, and Height = 17ft

Solution:

Given data is

Length = 13ft

Width = 6ft

Height = 17ft

Step 1:

The formula for cubic feet

Cubic Feet = Length (ft) × Width (ft) × Height (ft)

Step 2:

Now put the above-given value

Cubic Feet = 13 × 6 × 17

Cubic Feet = 1326 ft3

Example 2:

Calculate cubic feet of the given measurements of the tank.

Length = 4yd, width = 20yd, and height = 31yd

Solution:

Given data

length = 4 yd

width = 20 yd

height = 31 yd

Step 1:

Formula

Cubic Feet = Length (ft) × Width (ft) × Height (ft)

First, we convert all (yd) units into feet

4 yd = 3×4 = 12 ft

20 yd = 60 ft

31 yd = 93 ft

The values after conversion are as:

length = 12 ft, width = 60 ft, height = 93 ft

Step 2:

Now we have to put values in the above formula:

Cubic Feet = 12 × 60 × 93

Cubic Feet = 66960 ft3

Using a cubic feet calculator is an easy way to find the volume of different object in cubic feet with steps.

FAQs

### FAQs

Tell the many cubic feet on one cubic meter.

There are approximately 35.3147 cubic feet in one cubic meter. To convert from cubic meters to cubic feet, multiply the number of cubic meters by 35.3147.

How can I convert cubic feet to gallons?

The conversion from cubic feet to gallons depends on the type of gallon used. In the US customary system, there are 7.48052 gallons in one cubic foot. So, when we convert the cubic feet into gallons, we multiply the number into 7.48052.

How can I estimate cubic feet for irregularly shaped objects or spaces?

For irregularly shaped objects or spaces, you can use various techniques to estimate cubic feet. One common method is to divide the object or space into smaller regular shapes (such as cubes or rectangular prisms), measure their dimensions, and calculate the volume of each shape. Then, sum up the volumes to get an estimate of the total cubic feet.

Conclusion

In this article, we have discussed the concept of cubic feet, the formulas of cubic feet, and the application of cubic feet. In addition, the topic will be explained with the help of detailed examples. After completely understanding this article, anyone can defend this topic easily.

Standard Room Sizes

# Top 10 Busiest Airports in the UK (United Kingdom)

The number of Airports are now increasing rapidly throughout the world as air traffic increase. Various types of airports have been built all over the world according to demand. Today we will talk about the most popular airports in the United Kingdom. The UK is one of the popular destinations for international travellers and one of the most developed countries in the world as well. Here, we are talking about the top 10 busiest Airports in the UK which play a significant role in managing the heavy air traffic of the UK.

## 1. Heathrow Airport

London Heathrow Airport is the most prominent airport than any other airports in the UK. Heathrow is also recognised as the busiest and main international Airport in the UK. This London-based airport is owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Limited. As of 2022, Heathrow was ranked as the ” second busiest Airport in the world by international passenger traffic and second busiest Airport in Europe”. It was also the busiest Airport in the world by international passenger traffic in 2013. The airport is spread across 4.69 square miles. It is located in the London Borough of Hillingdon, England, UK. Heathrow Airport has two main runways with five terminals.

It has cargo flights also. Around 77 years ago, the Airport was opened on 25th March 1946. In 2008, Queen Elizabeth II inaugurated Terminal 5, which shows the importance of Heathrow Airport in the UK as well as in the world. There are many rail stations which connect the Airport for easy travel of passengers. Heathrow Airport is very popular among travellers and is recommended as the best representative of British Airways.

In 2022, over 61,611,838 passengers were handled by the airport. Baggage handling systems and check-in facilities are done smoothly in a cooperative manner. Parking lots and free shuttle buses are a must for any international Airport, and Heathrow’s Free shuttle buses are very helpful for new passengers, which directly take passengers’ to their own terminal. The airport security of Heathrow is getting higher day by day after some past incidents.

## 2. London Gatwick Airport

London Gatwick is the UK’s second busiest Airport. In the year 2022, London Gatwick “became the second busiest Airport in the UK and also ranked eighth busiest Airport in Europe”. The Airport is located in Crawley, West Sussex, England, United Kingdom. The Airport is just ” 28 miles from the south of centre London “. The total area of the Airport is spread across 1,670 acres. This busy airport is owned and operated by Gatwick Airport Limited.

In the late 1920s, Gatwick started its journey as an ” aerodrome ” but on 30th May 1958, Gatwick opened as an Airport with a new beginning. This Airport has two terminals – north and south. The north terminal was built around 1,050,000 sq. ft area and the south terminal is about 1,700,000 sq. ft area. The south terminal of Gatwick ” has 32 gates with a modular design which can expand its area as passengers increase. The North terminal of this Airport has 33 gates. The expansion of this terminal was completed in 2011 and the terminal was opened by the former prime minister John Major.

The Airport mainly uses a 3,316 meters long single runway. The second alternative runway is used in most emergency cases. Many big accidents happened in the past, so for that, security and checkups are done strictly nowadays before flying into the sky. Gatwick Airport is connected by a railway station which is available in the west of Sussex. Parking, airport lounges, high security and accessibility of almost everything are highly impressive to the passengers. After the Covid pandemic, “32.8 million passengers were handled by the Gatwick Airport in 2022.

## 3. Manchester Airport

As of 2022, Manchester Airport is the third busiest Airport in the United Kingdom on the number of passengers handled. This international Airport is located in Ringway, southwest of Manchester city centre, England. The Airport is spread across 1,400 acres of area. It ranks thirteenth in the list of highest destinations served airports all over the world.

Manchester Airport has several flights which serve 199 destinations. The Airport is owned and operated by “Manchester Airport Holdings”. On 25th June 1938, the Airport was opened as Ringway Airport. Manchester is the focus city for Aer Lingus Uk, EasyJet, jet2.com, Ryanair, and TUI Airways company. It has a total of 4 terminals. Each terminal is well connected to another terminal by Skylink and the airport railway station is also connected to the “Skylink” walkway for a hustle-free air travel experience.

Terminal 1 was inaugurated by Prince Philip and spread over a 1,200,000 sq ft area. It is said that Terminal 1 will close in 2025 and passengers will merge with Terminal 2 to reorganise the Airport. Now terminal 2 has a total area of 560,000 sq ft with 16 gates and 20 air bridges, At the present time, it has the capacity to handle 8 million passengers annually but it will be further extended for handling 25 million passengers annually. Terminal 3 is spread across a 478,000 sq ft. area.

Passenger parking is also available at the Airport. During the pandemic, only seven million passengers use, the airport but now, passenger numbers are increasing and the economy of the Airport is getting better gradually. As of 2022, over 23.36 million passengers were handled by the Airport.

## 4. London Stansted

London Stansted is an international Airport in Stansted Mountfitchet village of Essex, England, United Kingdom. In 2022, London Stansted became the ” fourth busiest Airport in the UK “. The Airport is owned and operated by “Manchester Airport Holdings”.

London Stansted was opened in August 1943 the time of World War II. It has one single runway which is about 3,048 metres long. The Airport has one main passenger terminal. The terminal was designed by Foster and Partners with the help of engineer Peter Rice. Departure gates, air bridges, and transit systems are also present. In 1991, Stansted Airport Railway station was made for passenger benefits.

Stansted manages to handle more than 160 destinations in Asia, Europe, and Africa. The Airport also handles many private companies like Titan Airways, Harrods Aviation etc. for their private flights, charter flights, etc. Air Albania, Air Moldova, Albawings, EasyJet, Emirates and many other airlines are handled by Stansted Airport. From 2021, the Airport is going through an expansion plan to reorganize the base. In 2022, over 23.29 million passengers were handled by the Airport after the pandemic and the numbers are also increasing day by day.

## 5. London Luton

As of 2018, London Luton is the fifth busiest Airport in the UK. It is also considered one of the largest international airports in London. The Airport is based in Luton, Bedfordshire, England. London Luton is owned by Luton Rising and operated by London Luton Airport Operations Ltd. The Airport was opened on 16th July 1938. Luton Parkway Station is situated near the Airport for easy travel of passengers. Here, you can find long-stay car parking facilities as well.

For the same geographical location, sometimes London Luton is considered a rival of Stansted Airport in terms of profit business. In London Luton airport, DHL Aviation, TUI Airways, EasyJet, Ryanair UK, and many more companies run their flights. The Airport has one single runway covering an area of 7,087 sq. ft. The Airport has an instrument Landing System, automated baggage handling facilities and Luton DART which is an automated guided people mover. In 2022, this international Airport handled around 13.1 million passengers.

## 6. Edinburgh Airport

Edinburgh Airport is the sixth busiest Airport in the United Kingdom and the busiest Airport in Scotland. The Airport is located in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. BA Cityflyer, EasyJet, jet2, Laganair, and Ryanair are the main companies that use this airport for their flights. The Airport is owned by Global Infrastructure Partners and operated by Edinburgh Airport Ltd.

The Airport first opened as ” Turnhouse Aerodrome ” in the time of World War 1 and in the time of the second world war, the first runway was paved and after the end of world war II, in 1947, it was opened for commercial flights. In 1952, its runway was extended. In 1977, Queen Elizabeth II inaugurated the new terminal and then Edinburgh Airport was opened to the public.

Edinburgh Airport has one main runway that is 2556 meters long. Lothian Buses, Stagecoach East Scotland Public Transport, Xplore Dundee Public Transport, and Citylink public transport are available to reach the Airport. Glasgow A8 Road is an easy-to-go road to access the Airport. The Airport is also accessible from M8 Motorway, M9 Motorway and M90 Motorway.

Edinburgh Gateway Rail Station is well-connected to the Airport. Edinburgh trams are also an easy path to reach the Airport. After Covid, in 2022, the Airport handled 11,250,211 passengers and the number of daily passengers is also increasing and everything is getting normal like before.

## 7. Birmingham Airport

Birmingham Airport is the seventh busiest Airport in the UK. This international Airport is based in Bickenhill Village, in the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull, England. The Airport is owned by a group of three shareholders. And, the Airport is operated by Birmingham Airport Ltd.

There are many airlines that use this airport, among them the most popular airlines are: easyJet, Jet2, Ryanair, Aer Lingus, TUI Airways, Emirates, KLM, etc. The Airport has two terminals for all kinds of flights with agent desks and check-in halls. And these two terminals are connected through a building named Millennium Link. Bringimam has one runway that is 3,052 meters long.

The Airport serves many destinations like the Indian subcontinent, North America, Europe, the Middle East, the Caribbean, etc. A45 Main Road, M42 Motorway, and Birmingham International railway station are some of the paths to reach the Airport. In 2022, more than 10 million people used Birmingham Airport which is considered a great start after the pandemic.

## 8. Bristol Airport

Bristol Airport has acquired the eighth position in the list of the top 10 busiest Airports in the United Kingdom. This international Airport is located in Lulsgate Bottom, North Somerset, Bristol, England. The Airport is owned by Ontario Teachers’ Pension Plan. In 2010, the Airport uses a slogan – ” Amazing journeys start here “. 116 destinations are served by Bristol Airport with the help of 14 Airlines.

Some popular destinations are – Brussels, Chicago, Boston, Hamburg, Dubai, LA, Johannesburg, New York, Miami, San Francisco, Rio de Janeiro and many more. Easy Jet, jet2, Ryanair, and TUI Airways use Bristol Airport for their flights. Bristol Airport has one runway that is 2,011 meters long.

The Airport has Temple Meads train station which is just 8 miles away from the Airport. For passenger’s easy travel, Bristol airport Bus station is also present there. Airport lounges, parking ( silver zone), and other facilities are also available in the Airport. In 2022, more than 7,948,941 (7.94 million) passengers were handled by Bristol Airport. After the pandemic, Bristol is one of those “fastest recovery airports” which are experiencing improvements as compared to other international Airports.

## 9. Glasgow Airport

Glasgow International Airport is the ninth busiest Airport in the UK and the second busiest in Scotland. The airport is located in Abbotsinch, Paisley, Scotland, United Kingdom. ” AGS Airports ” owns and operates the Glasgow Airport. Easyjet, jet2, and TUI Airways are tenants of the Glasgow international airport. Queen Elizabeth II officially inaugurated the Glasgow Airport on 27th June 1966.

As of 2017, Glasgow Airport had managed approximately 9.9 million passengers which is the all-time highest. It has one runway that is 2,665 metres long. One big terminal and another small terminal are present in the Airport. Shuttle bus services are easily available at the Airport. M8 Motorway is an easy path for riders to reach the Airport. In 2022, this airport handled more than 6,516,029 passengers.

## 10. Belfast International Airport

Belfast Airport has achieved the tenth position in the list of the top 10 busiest airports in the United Kingdom (UK). In 2019, the Airport made a record of handling 6.27 million passengers in a year. The Airport is located in Aldergrove, country Antrim, Belfast, Northern Ireland. This international Airport is owned and operated by Vinci Airports. Easy Jet, jet2, Ryanair, and TUI Airways are some of the tenants of Belfast Airport.”

Belfast Airport has two cross runways, and this airport is considered ” the largest Airport in Northern Ireland “. One runway is 2,780 metres long and another one is 1,891 meters long. This international Airport has only one passenger terminal. Belfast serves many destinations in the UK like Birmingham, East Midlands, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Cardiff and many others.

Antrim Train Station is a nearby railway station used by the passenger. There is an Airport express 300 bus line available. Belfast serves 53 destinations in 18 countries as an International Airport. In 2022, the Airport handled over 4.8 million passengers. Belfast Airport is gradually working on its future plan which is to serve 12 million passengers by 2030.

Top 5 Busiest Ports in the US

Top 10 Tallest Buildings in the UK

Top 7 Tallest Buildings in France

# Incredible Benefits of Skirting Boards – Ultimate Guide

Installing skirting boards in your home may be a good decision because they may improve the appearance of any building. Another tip for increasing a home’s worth for potential purchasers is to install baseboards.

Choosing the ideal skirting might be challenging, but if you do it perfectly, your home will seem completely modernised and more upmarket. Skirting boards are a do-it-yourself job, so you do not have to stress out about the cost of installation or upkeep. They are also quite simple to install. Highlighted below are the benefits of adding baseboards to your home.

## Long-Lasting Durability

Baseboards are generally robust and low maintenance. They are more practical for homeowners who are coping with moisture and water damage in their homes. Even though hardwood skirting is more expensive than other materials, it is a durable solution. Baseboards are ideal for rooms in the house, including the dining room and living room.

## Damage Control

Skirting boards can operate as a barrier to keep your furniture from touching the walls and damage the plastering, painting, wallpaper, or wall itself. The skirting panels also offer some defence against vacuums, toys, cleaning, and ordinary household traffic for the lower portions of the walls. Compared to fixing the walls, replacing the boards is substantially less expensive.

## Fill Gaps

Your home’s walls, floors, and doors may have gaps in certain places from improper installation. Skirting boards such as pine skirting are here to save the day, so stop worrying.

They fill any unsettling gaps in your house, enhance its appearance, and improve security. They also deter pests from using the opening to access your home. Purchase skirting boards in the needed sizing to appropriately fill in the gaps to avoid being disappointed.

## Conceal Unattractive Wiring

There is not a homeowner who does not regard wires and cables as essential components of every property. As a result, many homeowners are selecting skirting boards, which have emerged as one of the best methods for hiding unsightly wiring. Add skirting boards to your property because they will easily enhance the décor overall.

## Simple Installation and Upkeep

Due to the simplicity of installation and upkeep, decorative skirting is a popular investment among homeowners. Anybody may install baseboards; expert installation is unnecessary because the process is simple. The boards must be cut, the proper angle must be determined, and the boards must be fastened using a drill and some glue. Keep in mind that fitting hardwood baseboards could be more difficult, necessitating expert help.

Skirting boards are relatively easy to maintain using appropriate cleaning products. Start by using a cloth to dust the surface. Use the vacuum’s brush attachment to access difficult-to-reach places more easily. Skirting boards should then be cleaned with warm, soapy water to restore shine.

The home’s skirting boards such as pine skirting make an excellent addition. They are, without a doubt, inexpensive and advantageous to the house’s wall. They are strong and of excellent quality. They also add a lovely appearance to your home and are simple to handle and

# Top 10 Longest Bridges in the World as of 2024

Throughout the history of mankind, we have seen that many great works of architecture have been made. Bridges are also made to connect two different places together. Connecting two important places and reducing travel time utilizing rail and road are usually the main reasons behind the construction of a bridge. So, let’s take a look at the top 10 longest bridges in the world and where they are located.

## 1. Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge

The Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge is the longest bridge in the world. The construction of the bridge was started in 2006 and was completed in 2010. However, the bridge was opened in 2011. The total length of the bridge is 164.8 kilometers or 102.4 miles. Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge is in the Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway which connects Shanghai with Nanjing in the province of Jiangsu.

The bridge is located in the delta of the Yangtze River and it runs parallel with the river from 8 to 80 km. It also runs over open water for about 9 km in Yangcheng Lake in Suzhou. The construction and design of the bridge were done by ‘CRBC’ which is a subsidiary of the Chinese government-funded company “China Communications Construction Company”.

During the construction of the Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge, about 10,000 people were employed and the total cost of construction of the bridge was about \$8.2 billion. The Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge is the holder of the Guinness World Record for the longest bridge in the world.

The second longest bridge in the world is “Changhua–Kaohsiung Viaduct” located in Taiwan. The bridge is a viaduct for the High-Speed Railway of Taiwan. The total length of this bridge is 157.31 km or 97.75 miles. Changhua–Kaohsiung Viaduct starts from Baguashan in Changhua County and ends in Zuoying District in Kaohsiung.

The bridge was completed in 2004, and was opened for operation in 2007, and in 2012, over 200 million people traveled over it. The viaduct was designed in such a way that it could withstand high seismic waves. The main reason behind the construction of the Changhua–Kaohsiung Viaduct in such a way is because the country of Taiwan is in the seismic line and the plates move frequently.

There are 4 stations in this viaduct Changhua, Yunlin, Chiayi and Tainan. Moreover, whenever a seismic event happens, the trains stop running in this viaduct, and it is built in such a way that no catastrophic damage happens.

The Kita-Yaitu Viaduct is a Railway bridge that was completed in 1982. The bridge has been the longest bridge in the world since then before being overtaken by the above two bridges. The bridge is in the high-speed Japanese Railway system Shinkansen. The two main cities of Japan, Kita and Yaitu are connected by this bridge. The length of the Kita-Yaitu Viaduct is 114.42 Km long.

## 4. Tianjin Grand Bridge

The fourth longest bridge in the world is Tianjin Grand Bridge. The bridge is a part of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway. The construction of the bridge was completed in 2010 and it was opened in 2011. This viaduct bridge runs between Langfang and Qingxian and is 113.7 km or 70.6 miles long.

The Tianjin Grand Bridge was designed and constructed so that the construction of Beijing Shanghai high-speed railway could avoid all the structures and other infrastructures in the route. Moreover, the construction of the bridge took less time than what was required to construct on the land. One more thing that contributed to the construction of the bridge was that bridge required less land to be acquired to make it efficient as well.

Each girder of the Tianjin Grand Bridge is 32 m long and weighs about 860 tons. The girders were built in two different workplaces and were brought to the installation site and then were carefully placed.

## 5. Cangde Grand Bridge

The fifth longest bridge in the world is the Cangde Grand Bridge which is also located in China. The construction of the bridge was completed in 2010, and like many other infrastructural projects, this Bridge was also designed and built by companies of the Chinese government.

The bridge is designed to withstand high-magnitude earthquakes as well as other common natural catastrophes like hurricanes and floods in the rainy season. This bridge is also a part of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway.

The Cangde Grand Bridge is 105.81 kilometers long and in the total length of the bridge, 3092 piers are there. The construction of this bridge has been of great importance as the train travel time across Macau, Hong Kong, and mainland China has been reduced to just 30 minutes. Previously, this same route used to take three hours and thirty minutes.

## 6. Weinan Weihe Grand Bridge

The Weinan Weihe Grand Bridge is the sixth-longest bridge in the world. It is also the 4th longest Chinese Bridge. The construction of the bridge was completed in 2008 however remained unused till 2010. The Weinan Weihe Grand Bridge is part of the Zhengzhou–Xi’an High-Speed Railway and connects the cities of Zhengzhou and Xi’an. The total length of the bridge is 79.73 kilometers or 49.54 miles.

The Weinan Weihe Grand Bridge throughout its entire length has crossed the Wei River twice, and other rivers like the ling river, Xi River, Loufu River, and Shi Di River along with other rivers as well. In the construction of this bridge, 2,300,000 cubic meters of concrete along with 45,000 tonnes of steel were used. Moreover, 10,000 workers built it as well.

## 7. Bang Na Expressway

The Bang Na Expressway is the first bridge on this list for automobiles. It is the 7th longest bridge in the world and the longest for the movement of vehicles. The bridge is a toll road bridge and it runs above the national highway 34 Thailand. The total length of the bridge is 55 km or 34 miles and it is an elevated 6-lane highway.

The Bang Na Expressway is owned by the Expressway Authority of Thailand and was designed by the late Louis Burger. The idea of the Bang Na Expressway was put forward by the Expressway and Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand.

The designer of the column and superstructure was Jean M. Muller whereas the alignment and foundation were done by Asian Engineering Consultants. The Bang Na Expressway was built by the joint venture of Bilfinger & Berger and Ch. The bridge was completed in 2000.

## 8. Beijing Grand Bridge

The Beijing Grand Bridge holds the eighth position in the list of the top 10 longest bridges in the world as of 2024. This bridge is a part of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed Railway. The construction of the Beijing Grand Bridge was completed in 2010 however it became functional in 2011.

This is the fourth bridge in this list which is part of China’s Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway. The presence of so many bridges in China in this list of the top 10 longest bridges of the world shows how much the government of China focuses on the development and upgradation of infrastructure.

The length of the Beijing Grand Bridge is 48.15 km long or 29.92 miles. Like all the other major infrastructural projects this bridge was also designed and constructed by a subsidiary of the Chinese government-funded company. Since the opening of the bridge, it has been an important part of the Beijing Shanghai High-Speed Railway connecting both the major cities of China.

## 9. Metro Manila Skyway System

The Metro Manila Skyway System of Metro Manila, in the Philippines, is the ninth longest bridge in the world. This elevated highway is the main expressway of Metro Manila and it connects the north and south Luzon Expressway. This bridge was opened in 1999 when the first stage of the project was completed.

Over the years the length of the viaduct bridge has been increasing with the completion of other stages. Currently, the Metro Manila Skyway System is 39.2 km long or 24.4 miles. The major areas through which the bridge passes are Caloocan, Quezon City, Manila, Makati, Pasay, Taguig, Parañaque, and Muntinlupa.

The Metro Manila Skyway System is a tolled elevated expressway and the vehicles are divided into three classes to collect taxes. The operations and maintenance of the Skyway were done by PNCC Skyway Corporation from 1999 till 2007. However, in 2008 Skyway Operation and Maintenance Corporation took over and the traffic safety and management, maintenance, and tolls were controlled.

## 10. Lake Pontchartrain Causeway

The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway is the 10th longest bridge in the world that crosses Lake Pontchartrain, in Louisiana, USA. The total length of the bridge is 38.44 km or 23.83 miles long making it the longest continuous bridge over water in the world. The causeway was 2 lanes when it opened in 1956. Moreover, in 1969 the parallel part of the causeway which was northbound opened as well.

In 1969, after the second stretch was completed Lake Pontchartrain Causeway was recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the longest bridge over water till 2011. The construction cost of the first stretch of the bridge was \$46 million which is equivalent to \$360 million in 2021. The second stretch needed only \$30 million which was equivalent to \$170 million according to 2021. The maintenance and operation of the bridge are currently controlled by Causeway Corporation.