Calculate the Horizontal Length After Slope Correction of Tape Mathematical Problem: The downhill end of the 30 m tape is held 70 cm too low. What is the horizontal length? Solution: Given, l = Length of the tape = 30 m.h = 70 cm = 0.70 m Correction for slope = = = 0.00817 m. …

Mathematics Problem – Example: A line of true length 500 m, when measured by a 20 m tape, is reported to be 502 m long. The correct length of tape is? Solution: Given, True Length = 500 m Measured Length = 502 m The line is measured long (502-500) = 2 m. Hence, the tape …

15 Equipment For Chain Survey The following 15 types of equipment are required for conducting chain survey Metric chain Arrows Metallic tape Ranging rods Offset rod Clinometer Plum bob with thread. Cross staff or optical square. Prismatic compass withstand. Wooden pegs. Mallet. Field book Good pencil Pen knife Eraser(rubber)

Calculate True Bearing From Magnetic Bearing If the magnetic declination at a place at the time of observation is known, the true bearing of a line can be calculated from its magnetic bearing and vice-versa. Determination of True Bearing From Magnetic Bearing Rules The following rules are applied to determine the true bearing if the …

42 Types of Map Symbols In a map, the objects are shown by symbols or signs, not by names. Following are the 42 types of map symbols which are used for civil engineering surveying and levelling. And what colour is used for different objects( like the river, railway, road bridge, culvert, tube well, open …

Convert Quadrantal Bearings to Whole Circle Bearing Convert the following quadrantal bearing into whole circle bearing: 1. N 30°30՛ E 2. S 50° E 3. S 20°45՛ W 4. N 25° W Solution: How to draw the line for a Q.B ?? For Example: N 30°30՛ E, S 20°45՛ W & for N 25° W. In case of N 30°30՛ E, the …

Convert Whole Circle Bearing to Reduced Bearing Rules 1. When Whole Circle Bearing(W.C.B) lies between 0° to 90°. Reduced Bearing(R.B) = W.C.B 2. When W.C.B lies between 90° to 180°. R.B = (180° – W.C.B) 3. When W.C.B lies between 180° to 270°. R.B = (W.C.B – 180°) 4. When Whole Circle Bearing(W.C.B) lies between 270° to 360°. Reduced Bearing(R.B) = (360° – W.C.B) Example …