Civil Engineering

20 Types of Classification of Tunnels

Tunnels are generally classified on the basis of the purpose, types of material and according to their position:  

Types of Classification of Tunnels

A. Classification Based on The Purpose

Base on purpose tunnels are classified as:

a. Traffic Tunnels

Traffic tunnels are of following types:

  • Highway tunnels
  • Railway tunnels
  • Navigation Tunnels
  • Pedestrian tunnels
  • Subway tunnels

b. Conveyance Tunnels

Conveyance tunnels are of following types:

  • Water supply tunnels
  • Hydroelectric power tunnels
  • Sewer tunnels
  • Tunnels for intake and conduit of public utilities
  • Transporting tunnels in industrial plant

B. Classification Based on Type of Material

Based on the type of material through which they pass, tunnels are classified as:

  • Tunnels in hard rock
  • Tunnels in soft rock
  • Tunnels in loose sand
  • Tunnels in quicksand
  • Open-cut tunnels
  • Tunnels in the river bed

C. Classification based on position or alignment

Based on position or alignment, tunnels are classified as:

  • Spiral tunnels
  • Saddle and base tunnels
  • Off-spur tunnels
  • Slope tunnels

Read Also:

 Necessity of Tunnels

 Methods of Ventilation in Tunnels

 Shapes of Tunnels

 Requirements of Good Ventilation System in Tunnels

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