What is Consolidation
Consolidation can be defined as the compression resulting from a long term static load and the consequent escape of pore water from the saturated soil mass.
According to terzaghi, every process involving a decrease in the water content of a saturated soil mass due replacement of water by air is called a process of consolidation.
Consolidation occurs due to one or more of the following factors:
a) Due to external static loads from structures.
b) Due to self-weight of the soil such as recently placed fills.
c) Due to the lowering of the groundwater table.
d) Due to desiccation.