10 Types of Buildings || All Building Classification in Detail

Hello reader, hope you are well! Before jumping into the main topic – ” types of buildings“, let’s see some important points regarding buildings.

10 Types of Buildings -  Building Classification in Detail
10 Types of Buildings.

Buildings are one of the fundamental needs of humans. We seek shelter and spend our lives in such buildings. The mention of the word building encourages the vision of a place with rooms, walls, etc. In a more general sense, the definition of a building is a structural construction that is made up of combining different structural elements and using various types of materials, such as – mud, brick, stone, wood, etc.

Any structure that is built with materials and has walls, plinth, roofs, floors, plumbing, foundation, platforms that are fixed, projection or a cornice, balcony, building services or anything that is affixed, or any wall that encloses or at least intend to enclose a specific space or specific land and have display structures of outdoor, we can call a building. For example, houses, shopping malls, schools, etc can be mentioned.

The primary purpose of a building is to provide security and shelter. Buildings serve the role of providing primary security from weather, and security threats along with the roles of helping to store, providing privacy and comfort to live life and work well.

There are various parts of a building, that are essential for its construction. The two basic components of any building are the foundation and superstructure.

Foundation is probably the most important part and critical work of any building construction. The load of the building depends completely on the foundation. Foundation is a kind of substructure that can be both Deep and shallow. The superstructure on the other hand is constructed on the foundation.

Types of Buildings

Based on their uses and as per civil engineering, buildings are classified into nine categories. But, we have taken an extra type as “Other Buildings” to discuss some more buildings. Following are the 10 types of buildings:
Namely,

  1. Residential Buildings,
  2. Educational Buildings,
  3. Institutional Buildings,
  4. Assembly Buildings,
  5. Commercial Buildings,
  6. Mercantile Buildings,
  7. Industrial Buildings,
  8. Storage Buildings,
  9. Hazardous Building and
  10. Other buildings (wholesale establishments, mixed land use buildings, detached and semi-detached buildings, high-rise buildings, special buildings, unsafe buildings, slums, and multi-level car-parking)

1. Residential Buildings

Among the various types of buildings, residential buildings are an important building type. Any building that provides accommodation for sleep generally for normal residential purposes, and also may or may not come with the facilities of cooking and dining can be called a residential building.

Types of buildings - 1. Residential Buildings
1. Residential Buildings.

The various categories in which the residential buildings are classified are apartment houses or flats, private dwelling areas, dormitories hotels along with lodging and rooming houses.

There are various benefits of a residential building such as – residential buildings are generally much less costly than commercial, these are also much easier to buy because of the less paperwork that is required, and it is much easier to find tenants than to find renters for a commercial place, there are very few complications in the residential building because of the small skill of their operation.

In residential buildings, the rent period also happens to be much short than that of commercial buildings also the location does not matter in the case of residential buildings as it is only for residing. The ROI for residential buildings though is much lower than the commercial buildings.

Note: At present, the world’s tallest residential building is Central Park Tower which is located in New York City, and the height of the building is 472 m. Read also: Top 10 Tallest Buildings in New York City.

2. Educational buildings

Educational building signifies the building designs that are made to accommodate primary, secondary, intermediate, and higher education systems. These buildings often include the library, lab, hall room, and various types of living areas for the students, like – hostels and dormitories.

2. Educational buildings - classification of buildings
2. Educational buildings

Of different types of buildings, the educational building is one of the most important buildings that are used for the development of the next generation. Educational buildings house schools, colleges, and other kinds of educational institutions mostly recognized by and affiliated with boards, universities, or other appropriate authorities.

Educational buildings promote the process of learning and the process of passing down of knowledge from one generation to another, these buildings are the aggregates of society. It is essential for educational buildings to have proper residential capacities for the employees or other people who need to reside within the building. It is also advised for any educational institution to have its hostel either inside or outside of the building itself.

The first educational buildings were supposed to be seen in the social classes and schools for priests in ancient Babylon Egypt, and Assyria. Institutions were evidently part of the temples. The development that education had in medieval Europe turned out to also be the rise of specialized buildings for educational institutions such as colleges. Around this time, the various differentiations in the rooms of a specialized educational institution were started.

The process of development in the sector of various types of school buildings began before the early 20th century and proceeded slowly. There were two basic plans of composition that were used in that time as well as throughout the 20th century – either a single building indicated with a complex floor plan that consisted of blocks or a composition that consists of several individual buildings (pavilion composition). From then to today, throughout the process of evolution and various changes in design, nowadays building plans are born.

Note: World’s Tallest educational building is Lomonosov Moscow State University, which is located in Moscow, Russia. This building stands at a height of 240 m.

3. Institutional Buildings

Institutional buildings signify those buildings or structures that place any major role that relates to health care, public works, or education. Every institutional building is unique and when it comes to approach and institutional building from any designation, be it design or floor plan there is no single approach that fits all.

Institutional Buildings
3. Institutional Buildings

In a nut shell, institutional buildings are the buildings that matter most in the community and communal development. Institutional buildings refer to the various parts and enterprises of society that helps build the future. Be it a school or a hospital the institutional structures have to be the most prominent and perfect because our future depends on them.

Nowadays, the emergence of biophilic structures is a much-talked subject that needs to be incorporated into institutional buildings. Through the biophilic structures in these buildings, we can revert our proximity to green and that is probably the most needed thing in today’s world. The Covid situation pointed right at the destruction of pollution and through the incorporation of biophilic structures in institutional buildings, we can step forward towards getting a grip on it.

4. Assembly Buildings

Assembly building signifies any specific part of a building or a whole building where at least 50 or more congregate for amusement, recreation, civil, patriotic, travel-related, social, religious, or other purposes or even gather around for prayers of any kind.

Assembly Buildings
4. Assembly Buildings.

Assembly buildings are generally based on the more open and simpler plan of floors, in most of the buildings, their master is one place that can be used as a podium or stage for performances or addressing the people. The rest of the floor generally has open spaces or sitting arrangements for the public or the viewers.

Assembly building includes museums, auditoriums, convention centers, exhibition halls, assembly halls, theatres, large gymnasiums, motion picture houses, dance halls, places of worship, skating rinks, passenger stations, club rooms stadiums, terminals of air, marinas, etc.

The history of assembly buildings can be traced to the very beginning of society. As long as there were groups of people, there has been a place for meeting problems and celebrations. Then with the emergence of religion and culture, came the buildings that hold the program and the deities. Places of worship have been an important part of society through their emergence. Through various different procedures and changes, the buildings of assembly evolved and they also changed with time.

5. Commercial Buildings

It is another common building type for the present era. Trade is one of the most important things in today’s world. Without commerce, international relations and people’s livelihoods will be at stake. And commercial buildings are the most important pillars when it comes to business both for those who rent them and the people who own them. One single commercial building can contain various types of businesses that include restaurants, manufacturers, various offices, and even retailers.

Commercial Buildings
5. Commercial Buildings.

So, the first step of opening a business is to understand the management of commercial properties and the values involved. The same goes for the owners of the building as they need to understand the full use of the business is provided to a roof too, also because renting the buildings in itself is a form of business.

Any building that provides a place for commercial activities is called a commercial building, it can include warehouses, retail spaces, outlets, office buildings, etc.

The most common type of commercial building is the office building, which can be found in every city and even town not only respective of their size but also in respect of the needs of that community. Another common example of commercial buildings is restaurants. Restaurants can be found in every nook and cranny of any city.

Another type of commercial building is retail space that many people jump to when talking about commercial spaces. Retail buildings are mostly used for everyday shopping and other uses. Another commercial building is hotels, though hotels seem to qualify as residential buildings, most of the hotels are commercial buildings because of their earning stature.

Warehouses on the other hand are purely commercial buildings and it is probably one of the most common buildings that can be found in large cities as well as rural areas. Generally used as hubs for storage, warehouses are also used by logistics and shipping companies.

Healthcare is one of the commercial building tests might not seem like it but most hospitals and clinics are such enterprises that cool on earning money by serving customers. The industrial building however is included in a broad range of buildings. But industrial buildings can also be called commercial buildings in most cases because again of the earning statures. Read Also: Principle of Building Planning.

6. Mercantile Buildings

Mercantile Buildings
6. Mercantile Buildings.

A Mercantile building signifies any part of the building or even the whole building that is being used as a store or a market or a shop. It can be used for various processes like – selling or displaying merchandise. Service and storage facilities along with offices that align in their incidence to the sale of merchandise, if located in the same building; can also be included in the group of mercantile buildings.

A Mercantile tag can be designated in any part of a building, as to be considered mercantile, the establishment doesn’t always need to acquire the whole building. A part of a building can also be classified as a mercantile structure based on the mentioned criteria.

7. Industrial Buildings

Industrial building refers to the construction and design of buildings that serve various industries. These buildings’ rise of importance started during the industrial revolution era and is continued to date. The various types of industrial buildings are factories, foundries, forges, gristmills, mines, breweries, distilleries, drilling rigs, sawmills, refineries, etc.

Industrial Buildings

Any building where the raw materials are processed and fabricated can be called an industrial building. These buildings are probably one of the most important structures for the sustenance of humankind. The basis of civilized growth of society is the foundation of the manufacturing and assembling of various products necessary for livelihood.

Industrial buildings are the place where raw materials are turned into products. Be it a construction site or a manufacturing unit or a refinery, the manufactured product keeps on the process of sustenance of somebody or other and in a whole of the whole world.

8. Storage Buildings

Storage building signifies the whole building or even a part of a building that is being used for storing goods or commodities or merchandise. The categorization of a storage building comprises the fact that; that very building or that part of a building is specifically being used for storage. Namely cold storages, grain storage units, stables, barns, warehouses, freight depots, hangars, transit shades, public garages, and even truck terminals can be examples of storage buildings.

Storage Buildings - types of buildings
8. Storage Buildings

Storage buildings can also be used for the proper handling of highly combustible materials. Based on the different types of things that are being stored in a particular building, the structural and floor planning of the storage building differs vastly.

Most of the storage buildings have proper security measures against other natural matters that can take a toll on the stored products. Many of the storage buildings are also used as a reserve in units where food items and others are kept in a protected manner to save them for the future.

9. Hazardous Buildings

Hazardous Buildings
9. Hazardous Buildings.

The building that is used for touring hazardous materials i.e., chemicals and other materials that can be fairly dangerous to humans and have fast polluting power are called hazardous buildings. Hazardous buildings are generally used for the storage and processing of combustible materials. Also, for the careful handling and manufacture of various materials of explosive nature and the same kind of products that can burn with extreme rapidity. The same goes for the poisonous elements.

Also, the manufacturing and processing of toxic and noxious alkalis, highly corrosive object, acids, and the same type of chemical liquids that also produce flames or corrosive gases are handled in this kind of facility. Besides being used for processing of these materials that produce an explosive mixture of dust which in turn, transfers matters into finer particles if they are subjected to spontaneous ignition, these facilities are also used in the process of destroying them.

The mentioned works can be divided into two sub-categories. The first one is where the manufacturing processes are done for the radioactive and combustible explosives that have the potential of producing poisonous emissions and fumes. The second one is where the manufacture and handling processes are done of the toxic alkalis, acids, corrosives, and other chemical materials. Read Also: Orientation of Building.

10. Other Buildings

Besides the mentioned 9 types of buildings, there are various classifications of buildings in existence that are being used every day for various purposes. From wholesale establishments to car parking and even slums, these categories are mentioned below.

► Wholesale Establishments

The buildings that are enlisted under this category are the establishments that are being either fully or partially used for trades in a wholesale manner. It is mostly used for selling products to retailers. They can be also utilized for wholesale production and storage. These facilities or warehouses provide transportation via truck and even booking services.

► Mixed Land Use Buildings

The buildings, that are signified in this category are the ones that are being used for residential purposes and any non-residential activities together and simultaneously. This can be a commercial building that is being used for the residence of some people along with the shops.

This can also be an educational building that is being used for the residence of students and faculty along with being used for its main purpose the school or college, and it can even be any construction or commercial building that is being used for the residence of the workers and the main purpose. Mixed land use buildings are probably seen in every kind and type of building.

► Detached and Semi-Detached buildings

The buildings which have no adjoining roofs or even walls from any other building on three sides, which means the buildings that are completely detached from the other buildings or constructions beside them, can be called detached buildings.

Detached buildings also need to have open spaces within their boundary to be termed so. On the other hand, semi-detached buildings signify the buildings which have open spaces that are defined as an integral part of that very site and left open to the sky, on all those sides, besides being detached from any other building on three sides.

► High Rise Buildings

Any buildings that have a height of more than 23 m are categorized as high rises buildings. Another criterion is that the building has to comprise more than or equal to 7 stories. Read Also: Top 10 Tallest Buildings in the World.

► Special Buildings

The special building category is an all-encompassing criterion. Special buildings are all and every building comes with an air conditioning system that is placed centrally and has a built-up area of more than 600 square meters or even more, and also is more than 15 meters in height. Any building that fits these criteria is called a special building.

Buildings like assembly or industrial buildings, wholesale establishments or hazardous buildings, hostels, or hotels will come under these criteria and will be considered special buildings.

► Unsafe Buildings

A building can be considered unsafe for a plethora of reasons. Firstly, the building may not have proper sanitation, the building can be contaminated or even can be structurally weak and thus deemed unsafe. Many buildings or facilities also don’t have the proper points from where one should get in or out, Many buildings do not follow proper firefighting regulations, and they are prone to various hazards related to fire.

These types of buildings, which are currently in use and also poses threat to the safety and life of humans and deem the welfare of the public in that area unsafe, are to be properly restored or demolished, under the guidelines of the government. The necessary measures are to be undertaken as per the instruction of the authority concerned.

► Slums

slums buildings
Slums.

This classification of building signifies the establishments that generally have a below-quality condition of habitability and degenerated level of maintenance. The problem in these situations can be caused because of the inadequate presence of ventilation, lack of sanitation, or other factors that are detrimental. Slums are generally tagged to the legislation being concerned accordingly under any competent authority.

► Multilevel Car Parking

This is the type of building which are either partially or completely under the ground. Generally, these buildings have two or more levels in the basement along with one or two levels above ground. This building’s sole purpose is to park cars, scooters, bikes, or any other light vehicle that is motorized.

Generally, these buildings are seen in areas that are heavily populated or adjacent to commercial buildings, or in the vicinity of marketplaces, basically any place that gets crowded on an everyday basis and also has very limited space.