15 Basic Components of a Building Structure || Parts of a Building

15 Basic Components of a Building Structure

A building is one of the basic requirements for human living. It provides shelter as well as security in both the domains of the natural and social environment. A building structure is all about the arrangements and alignments of its complex parts. There are 15 basic components of a building structure which are as follows.

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  1. Foundation
  2. Plinth Beam
  3. Tie Beam
  4. Beam
  5. Column
  6. Stair
  7. Floor
  8. Wall
  9. Opening
  10. Lintel
  11. Chajja
  12. Parapet
  13. Roof
  14. Coping

1. Foundation

Foundation makes the base of a building. Thus, it forms a basic structural unit over which the whole building is built. The building loads should be evenly distributed over the base in response to the soil depth so that it causes no settlement damage. A solid ground is preferable for the ideal making of a foundation.

A shallow foundation comprises individual footing or isolated footing, combined footing, strip foundation, raft or mat foundation whereas, deep foundation includes, pile foundation and drilled shafts or caissons. The foundation size varies due to structural and site ground conditions. Thus standardization is not possible for foundation size. Generally, for a small row house, the depth of the foundation should be at least 1.5 m. from ground level.

2. Plinth

The plinth beam is another part of a building. A plinth beam is a kind of beam structure that provides stability to the settlements and work as a protector from earthquake. A plinth beam generally lies between the ground and the floor. It helps in preventing the surface water to enter the building by raising the floor above the ground level.

3. Tie Beam

The beam which is provided above the plinth level is known as the tie beam. This is another important building component that are act as a length breaker in the columns and makes a structure as a frame.

4. Beam

The beam is one of the most essential parts of a building structure. Beams are the horizontal members of a building. in the case of a building, the load coming from the slab is transferred by the beams into the columns. Reinforced cement concrete (R.C.C) is used to make the beam. Generally, there are several types of beams usually used in construction work which are classified based on the following conditions.

▶ Based on Support Conditions
▶ Based on Construction Materials
▶ Based on Cross-Section Shapes
▶ Based on Geometry
▶ Based on Equilibrium Condition
▶ Based on Method of Construction

Major beam styles categorized under the above conditions incorporate the Simply Supported Beam, Fixed Beam, Cantilever Beam, Continuous Beam, Reinforced Concrete Beams, Steel Beams, Timber beams, Composite Beams, Rectangular beam, T-section beam, L-section beam, Straight beam, Curved beam, Tapered beam, Statically Determinate Beam, Statically indeterminate beam, Cast In-situ Concrete Beam, Precast Concrete Beam, Prestressed Concrete Beam, Deep Beam,  Girder.

5. Column

The column is a vertical member and it is one of the most essential components of a building structure. Columns are created above the ground level. There are two types of columns, i.e. Architectural columns and structural columns. Structural columns are developed to bear the load of the slabs above and transfer the load by joining to the foundation. On the other side, architectural columns are built only to fulfill the aesthetic criteria of a building.

6. Stair

A stair is a sequentially built-up steps for connecting different floors of a building. A stairway is a space that is occupied by a stair. The apartment or room of a building in which a stair is located is called a staircase. Wooden stairs, R.C.C stairs, brick stairs, metal stairs,s, etc. are the most commonly used types of stairs.

7. Floor

The floor is the plane over the plinth level. A variety of materials like tiles, granites, marbles, concrete, etc. are used for flooring. The ground has to be properly compacted and leveled before flooring. The floor may be created in different levels and it is named as the ground floor, first floor(above the ground floor), the second floor(above the first floor), etc. Read Also: Types of Flooring.

8. Wall

Walls are vertical members and one of the main components of a building. Wall may be load-bearing or non-load-bearing types. It can be constructed with mud, stones, bricks, concrete blocks, etc. Walls protect the insiders from environmental components like – rain, wind, sunshine, wild animals, and societal enemies and give privacy to the occupants. Read Also: Partition Walls.

9. Opening

Doors & windows, and ventilators form different openings in a building. Doors are made to access the room whereas windows and small ventilators are provided in the walls for the light and aeration in the building.

10. Lintel

A stone slab or a concrete slab called LINTEL is constructed just above the openings to hold up the walls above the openings. On the other hand, SILL is made up just below the window. There are different types of lintel classified according to the use of materials such as a brick lintel, stone lintel, concrete lintel, etc.

11. Chajja

Chajjas are the weather shades made above the windows and projected towards the outside of them. A Chajja restricts the direct sunbeams and rainwater to enter the house.

12. Parapet

The parapet is basically a short safety wall that is extended over the roof slab specifically in the case of flat roofs.

13. Roof

The roof is the top-most component of a building structure which acts as a protector of the building from the weathering effects. It mainly lies over the walls as well as columns. Thatch, leaves, stones, mud, bricks, tiles, R.C.C, etc(Different types of roof covering materials). are used to construct roofs. Roofs can be of different shapes but depending upon the environmental differences, it becomes flat in low rainfall area and sloppy in high rainfall or snowfall area.

14. Coping

Coping is another component of a building structure, although, it is not always preferred by the owner. Coping is a structure constructed over the boundary wall or parapet to protect brick masonry walls by preventing direct sunlight or rain. Moreover, it is used to enhance the aesthetic beauty of the building also.