Month: May 2021

# How to Calculate Area of land or Plot Which is Irregular in Shape

## How to Calculate Area of land or Plot Which is Irregular in Shape

In this article, I will show you how to calculate the area of a plot that is regular or irregular in shape. And I am sure that, after viewing this article you can easily measure any type of plot area which are irregular in shape.

Surprisingly, you can measure the area of a plot of any size by using just two formulas. These two formulas are

a) ‘Area of a triangle’ formula

Area of triangle $(A) = \sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$

Where, s = semi-perimeter, and a, b, c, are the side of a triangle. The value of this semi-perimeter is = (sum of three sides)/ 2 = $\frac{(a+b+c)}{2}$

b) ‘Area of rectangle’ formula

Area (A) = w×z

### 1. Regular Triangular shaped plot

Regular Triangular shaped plot or we can say the plot having 3 sides equal in length

By using General Formula:

As you can see in this picture there is a plot that is triangular in shape and each side of which is equal in length. Although, The rules for finding the area of an equilateral triangle are what we learned in school.

Area of equilateral triangle is = $\frac{ \sqrt{3}}{4} \times (Side\, of \, the\, triangle)^{2}$
Therefore, the area of this plot will be = $\frac{ \sqrt{3}}{4} \times (10)^{2}$ = 43.3 m2

By using Common Formula:

Area of triangle $(A) = \sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$

Where, S = (10+10+10)/2 = 15

Therefore, the area of this triangular plot will be(A) = $\sqrt{15(15-10)(15-10)(15-10)}$

Or, A = $\sqrt{15(5)(5)(5)}$

Or, A = $\sqrt{1875}$

Or, A = 43.3 m2

### 2. Irregular Triangular shaped plots or lands

Irregular Triangular shaped plot or we can say the plot having 3 sides different in length.

Case 1. When 2 sides are equal in length and 1 side is different.

As you can see in this picture, there are two sides that are equal in length, but 1 side is different from the others.

By using Common Formula:

Area of the triangle $(A) = \sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$

Where, S = (12+12+18)/2 = 21

Therefore, the area of this type of plot will be(A) = $\sqrt{21(21-12)(21-12)(21-18)}$

Or, A = $\sqrt{21(9)(9)(3)}$

Or, A = $\sqrt{5103}$

Or, A = 71 m2

Case 2: When all sides of a triangle are unequal in length.

As you can see in this picture, there are 3 sides, that are unequal in length.

By using Common Formula:

Area of the triangle $(A) = \sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$

Where, S = (9+12+14)/2 = 17.5

Therefore, the area of this type of plot will be(A) = $\sqrt{17.5(17.5-9)(17.5-12)(17.5-14)}$

Or, A = $\sqrt{17.5(8.5)(5.5)(3.5)}$

Or, A = $\sqrt{2863.44}$

Or, A = 53.51 m2

### 3. Square Plot or Land

It is very easy to calculate the area of the square-shaped lands or plots. I’m sure most of the readers know how to calculate the area of a square land.

The area of a square land is = a.a = 15.15 = 225 square meter or 2421.88 sqft

Example:

A land having 4 sides length is 35 ft, calculate the area of this plot or land in square meters.

The area of this square land is = a.a = 35.35 = 1225 sqft

We know,

[ 1 square feet = 0.092903 square meter]

Therefore, The area of this land in square meters will be = 1225*0.092903 = 113.8 m2

### 4. Rectangular Plots or lands

The formula used for the rectangular plot or land area is = w.z ( show fig.2)

Example:

Following is a rectangular-shaped land, calculate the area of the land

The area of this rectangular-shaped land will be = w.z = 20*30 = 600 square meters.

### 5. Trapizium shaped lands or plots

By using the general formula

Area of a trapezium = 0.5 × ( sum of two parallel lines) × height

Now, how to calculate height(h) in this particular case? There are two ways to calculate this height. You can measure it in the field directly, or you can calculate it by using the Pythagorean formula.

By using the Pythagorean theorem:

Given,

BE = 10 m.
AB = EF = 8 m.
CD = 10 m (BE = CD)
AC = DF = 3 m.

Pythagorean theorem is, AC2 + BC2 = AB2

Or, 32 + h2 = 82

Or, h2 = 82 – 32

Or, h = 7.42 m

Now, The area of this land will be = 0.5 × (16+10) × 7.42 = 96.46 m2

But the easy way will be you measure the value of h in the field directly with the help of a tape or chain. after that, put the value of h in the above equation.

Can we find its area using common formula? Yes, we can. we can divide this into two triangles as you can see in the below image. Only you need to measure the value of the AE line in the field by using measuring tape. After that, you can find out the area of this section by using this formula; Area of the triangle $(A) = \sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$

### 6. Irregular Quadrilateral shaped plots or lands

Following is an irregular quadrilateral shaped land, or we can say the land having 4 sides with unequal length, or, irregular rectangular shaped land, calculate the area of this land.

As we can see in this picture, there are 4 sides, and each side’s length is different from the other. In this case, we need to divide this land into two different triangles as below image. After that, we can easily determine their area by using the common formula of a triangle. Let’s assume P is = 14 m.

The are of this quadrilateral will be = Area of (1) triangle + Area of (2) triangle

Semi perimeter for 1 no triangle s1 is = (9+16+14)/2 = 19.5

Area of 1 no triangle A1 is = $\sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$

Or, A1 = $\sqrt{19.5(19.5 – 9)(19.5 – 16)(19.5 – 14)}$

Or, A1 = $\sqrt{19.5(10.5)(3.5)(5.5)}$

Or, A1 = $\sqrt{3941.4}$

Or, A1 = 62.7 m2

Semi perimeter for 2 no triangle s2 is = (14+8+11)/2 = 16.5

Area of 2 no triangle A1 is = $\sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$

Or, A2 = $\sqrt{16.5(16.5 – 14)(16.5 – 8)(16.5 – 11)}$

Or, A2 = $\sqrt{16.5(2.5)(8.5)(5.5)}$

Or, A2 = $\sqrt{1928.4}$

Or, A2 = 43.91 m2

So, the area of this irregular quadrilateral shaped land or plot is = 62.7+43.91 = 106.61 m2

### 7. Irregular pentagonal shaped lands or plots

Following is an irregular pentagonal shaped land, or we can say the land has 5 sides with unequal lengths, calculate the area of this land.

As we can see in this picture, there are 5 sides, and each side’s length is different from the other. In this case, we need to divide this land into three different triangles as below image. After that, we can easily determine their area by using the common formula of a triangle.

Let’s assume P is 14 m, and Q is 13 m.

The area of this pentagon will be = Area of (1) triangle + Area of (2) triangle + Area of (3) triangle

Semi perimeter for 1 no triangle s1 is = (13+6+14)/2 = 16.5

Area of 1 no triangle A1 is = $\sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$

Or, A1 = $\sqrt{16.5(16.5 – 13)(16.5 – 6)(16.5 – 14)}$

Or, A1 = $\sqrt{16.5(3.5)(10.5)(2.5)}$

Or, A1 = $\sqrt{1515.9}$

Or, A1 = 38.9 m2

Semi perimeter for 2 no triangle s2 is = (14+14+13)/2 = 20.5

Area of 2 no triangle A1 is = $\sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$

Or, A2 = $\sqrt{20.5(20.5 – 14)(20.5 – 14)(20.5 – 13)}$

Or, A2 = $\sqrt{20.5(6.5)(6.5)(7.5)}$

Or, A2 = $\sqrt{6495.9}$

Or, A2 = 80.59 m2

Semi perimeter for 3 no triangle s3 is = (13+2+14)/2 = 14.5

Area of 3 no triangle A3 is = $\sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}$

Or, A3 = $\sqrt{14.5(14.5 – 13)(14.5 – 2)(14.5 – 14)}$

Or, A3 = $\sqrt{14.5(1.5)(12.5)(0.5)}$

Or, A3 = $\sqrt{135.9}$

Or, A3 = 11.6 m2

So, the area of this irregular pentagonal shaped land or plot is = 38.9 + 80.59 + 11.6 = 131.09 m2(square meter)

Full Form of BHK, 1BHK, 2BHK, 1RK, 2RK, 3BHK 2T in a Flat Layout

Vastu Shastra for House, Plot, Shop, Flat, and Office Buildings

# Full form of BHK | What is Bhk, 1BHK, 2BHK, 3BHK, 0.5 BHK, 1RK, 2BHK 2T in a flat Layout?

## What is Bhk?

BHK or RK or other terms are very commonly used during buying any flat or apartment. Therefore, it is very important to know all the terms related to flats or apartments before buying them. Otherwise, you may be deceived by the seller. BHK or RK is a notation that is generally used to identify or describe the layout of a flat or apartment. In this article, I will discuss the full form of BHK, 1BHK, 2BHK, 3BHK, 0.5 BHK, and also the full form of RK, 2BHK 2T, etc.

## What is the full form of BHK?

B for – Bedroom
H for – Hall
K for – Kitchen
So, BHK means Bedroom + Hall + Kitchen

If the BHK terms are used, it means there will be a bedroom, hall, and kitchen.
The numbers before the BHK terms are used to denote how many bedrooms, kitchens, and halls there are.

## What is the full form of RK?

R for – Room
K for – Kitchen

So, RK means Room + Kitchen
Rk is generally used to describe the layout of a flat apartment.

### 1BHK

1BHK means there will be 1 bedroom, 1 hall, and 1 kitchen.

The standard size of a 1BHK flat is around 400 to 500 sq. ft or 37 to 46 sq.m

### 2BHK

2BHK means there will be 2 bedrooms, 1 hall, and 1 kitchen.

It may be classified as that, there will be 1 master bedroom(bigger than standard size) and 1 small bedroom (smaller than standard size).

The standard size of a 2BHK flat is around 650 to 850 sq. ft or 60 to 80 sq.m.

### 3BHK

3BHK means there will be 3 bedrooms, 1 hall, and 1 kitchen.

It may also be classified as 1 master bedroom (bigger than standard size) and 1 small bedroom(smaller than standard size), and 1 standard-size bedroom.

The standard size of a 3BHK flat is around 850 to 1250 sq. ft or 80 to 115 sq.m

### 4BHK

4BHK means there will be 4 bedrooms, 1 hall, and 1 kitchen.

It may also be classified as 1 master bedroom, 1 small bedroom, 2 standard bedroom

or,

2 master bedrooms and 2 small bedrooms.

The standard size of a 4BHK flat is around 1900 to 2250 sq. ft or 176 to 210 sq.m.

### 2B2HK

2B2HK means there will be 2 bedrooms, 2 halls, and 1 kitchen.

### 3B2HK

3BHK means there will be 3 bedrooms, 2 halls, and 1 kitchen.

### 4B2H2K

4B2H2K means there will be 4 bedrooms, 2 halls, and 2 kitchens.

### 0.5 BHK

0.5BHK means there will be 1 bedroom(0.5), 1 hall, and 1 kitchen.

Explanation: 0.5 bedroom means, there will be a small-sized bedroom( smaller than standard size)  generally this size of room is recommended for study, library, or children’s playing room. but it can be used as a bedroom.

### 1.5 BHK

1.5BHK means there will be 2 bedrooms, 1 hall, and 1 kitchen.

In this case, there will be 1 standard size bedroom, and 1 small-sized bedroom(0.5).

Read Also: Components of a Building Structure.

### 2.5 BHK

2.5BHK means there will be 3 bedrooms, 1 hall, and 1 kitchen.

In this case, there will be 2 standard size bedrooms, and 1 small-sized bedroom(0.5).

### 1RK

1RK means there will be 1 room and 1 kitchen.

This room may be used as a hall room or bedroom or for other purposes.

The standard size of a 1RK apartment is around 200 to 500 sq. ft or 19 to 46 sq.m

### 2RK

2RK means there will be 2 rooms and 1 kitchen.

The standard size of a 2RK apartment is generally above 600 sq. ft or 56 sq.m

### 1BHK T

1BHK – T means there will be 1 bedroom, 1 hall, 1 kitchen, and 1 common toilet.

### 2BHK 2T

2BHK  2T means there will be 2 bedrooms, 1 hall, 1 kitchen, and 2 toilets( 1 common toilet and 1 attached toilet with the main bedroom or say master bedroom).

### 3BHK  2T

3BHK  2T means there will be 3 bedrooms, 1 hall, 1 kitchen, and 2 toilets( 1 common toilet and 1 attached toilet with master bedroom).

### 3BHK  3T

3BHK  3T means there will be 3 bedrooms, 1 hall, 1 kitchen, and 3 toilets( 1 common toilet and 2 attached toilets with bedroom).

A summary of everything above:

Vastu Shastra For House, Plot, Shop, Flat, and Office Buildings

Types of Stairs

Calculate the Area of land Which is Irregular in Shape

# 15 Types of Stairs || Staircase Types Explained

A staircase is an important part of a building structure. Generally, a stair means a series of steps that lead from one floor to another floor in a building. There are different types of stairs used in a building depending on the purpose and kind of the building. The room in which the stairs are located is named the staircase, and the space occupied by the stairs is known as the stairway

## Different Types of Stairs Used in Building

Stairs may be classified under the following two headings:

a) Classification Based on Stair design.
b) Classification Based on Material used for the construction of a stair.

a) Classification Based on Stair design

Based on stair design, they are classified into several types. In this article, I will discuss the 15 types of stairs that are commonly used in buildings. In this category, the most commonly used types of stairs are straight stairs, dog-legged stairs, continuous stairs, and U or L-shaped stairs. The classification of the stairs is as follows with a simple elaboration of each kind.

1. Straight Stairs
2. Dog-legged Stairs
3. Continuous  Stairs
4. Bifurcated Stairs
5. Quarter turn Stairs
6. Circular Stairs
7. Helical Stairs
8. Spiral Stairs
9. Winder  Stairs
10. Open Newel Stairs
12. Geometrical Stairs
13. Curved Stairs
14. U-shaped Stairs or Half-turn stairs
15. Three turn Stairs

### 1. Straight Stairs

The simplest types of stairs which can be used in a building are straight stairs, in which all the steps lead in one direction and in a continuous form. This type of staircase is generally used where there is a narrow or scarcity of space.

Generally, it consists of one flight, sometimes it may be split into two or more than two flights by providing a landing between two flights. Straight stairs follow a single linear flight with no change in direction. This type of staircase generally does not require any additional support and is very easy to take measurements and design accordingly. Read Also: Requirements of a Good Stair.

### 2. Dog-legged Stairs

The name of this type of stair can give us an idea of its special features. Generally, its directions are reversed or changed for 180 degrees as they are half-turn stairs and they appear as dog legs in its sectional elevation. These common types of stairs consist of two straight flights running in the opposite direction leaving no space between the flights in plan.

### 3. Continuous Stairs

The unique feature of this type of stair can be imaginable from its name only. These types of stairs are geometrical in shape and do not contain any landing or any intermediate newel post. Examples: circular stairs, helical stairs, etc.

### 4. Bifurcated Stairs

Do you all remember that grand stylish iconic staircase of the Hollywood movie Titanic? Those are called bifurcated stairs which are bifurcated into two smaller flights of stairs going in opposite directions with the help of quarter-turn mid-landing. These iconic types of staircases are generally used in modern houses where huge space is available.

### 5. Quarter-turn stairs

When the classic straight stairs in a building are turned at 90 degrees with the help of a level landing following either right or left direction, it is known as quarter turn stairs. This particular type of stairs is more attractive than ordinary straight stairs. But, it is hard to carry large objects up and down through this type of stairs, and is also harder to assemble than the straight stairs and sometimes it requires support for the landing. This type of stair looks like the English alphabet ‘L’, which is why it is also known as an L-shaped stair.

### 6. Circular Stairs

Generally made of R.C.C material or of Metal and is used in a place where there are space limitations. The steps are winders, generally located at the rear of the building and that’s why provides discomfort in using it. These types of stairs are mostly used in the backside of the building as emergency Stairs. Read Also: Moving Stairs.

### 7. Helical Stairs

This genre of stairs looks very fine but the structural design and its construction are very complicated. Generally, the material used in constructing this type of stairs is R.C.C. material in which a large portion of steel is required to resist bending, shear, and torsion.

### 8. Spiral Stairs

This type of stair is generally visible in old heritage buildings. The design of this type of stairs is compact with a single handrail which perfectly forms the shape of a circle if one observes it from the top of the stairs. This type of stair is more affordable and easy to install and gives the building a vintage look too. Though these types of stairs are difficult to navigate and can be used only by one person at a time. It can conflict with fire and safety issues too, and is also difficult to carry large objects up and down. This type of stair is also used in the backside of the building as an emergency stair.

### 9. Winder Stairs

Broadly winder stairs are somewhat like a similar or slightly complicated version of L or U-shaped staircases. Winder takes the place of the landing to save space.

### 10. Open Newel Stairs

This type of stair has clearly visible space at the beginning of the flight as well as at the end. The opening is generally of rectangular shape and it can be used for the installation of lifts in a building. The feature of this type of stair is of requirement of more space than the twice the width of the steps.

Ladder Stairs are usually incorporated in tiny houses to use that extra square feet of space without interruption. This may be made of wood, metal or bamboo. Small house owners these days follow this type of structure while building stairs. Read Also: 20 Types of Ladders.

### 12. Geometrical Stairs

This particular type of stairs is similar to the Open Newel Stairs –

i) This type of stair has any type of geometrical shape.

ii) They require no newel posts.

iii) The space between the backward and forward flight is curved.

iv) The handrail of such stairs is uninterrupted without any angular turn i.e. straight handrail is used in this type of stair.

### 13. Curved Stairs

This particular architectural type of stairs is mostly like of winder or L-shaped stairs which have particularly no landings and is a continuing one. The speciality of this type of stair is the bending of the handrail which gives it an awestruck statement of architecture and elegance. It is easy to navigate through. But, on the contrary, it is one of the most difficult staircase configurations to build and the large size of the stairs requires open, broad spaces.

### 14. U-shaped Stairs or Half-turn stairs

This particular type of stair is easy to access and can be found in most of the places. This is similar to the L-shaped stairs.  There is a landing space available between the two parallel flights of stairs which separates them and the bend available between the two flights of stairs forms a full U shape, for which this type of stairs are called U-shaped stairs or Half-turn stairs. These types of stairs are easy to incorporate in a small space and are visually more interesting than the straight or 90-degree staircases.

### 15. Three turn Stairs

Ramps in Buildings

Parts of an Arch

Standard Room Sizes

# Proctor Compaction Test – MCQ

Proctor Compaction Test – MCQ

1. Who was the first person to demonstrate the relation between the water content and dry density of the soil

a) Proctor
b) William Albrecht
c) Charles Darwin
d) Selman Waksman

a) Proctor

2. The capacity of the mould used in the Standard Proctor Compaction Test is

a) 1/20 cft
b) 1/30 cft
c) 1/36 cft
d) 1/42 cft

b) 1/30 cft

3. The volume of mould in standard proctor test is

a) 1.415 Liter
b) 0.944 Liter
d) 0.787 Liter
e) 0.674 Liter

b) 0.944 Liter

[Note – Question number (2) and (3) both are the same, the only difference is their unit. In the second question, it is in ‘cft’, and in 3 question it is in ‘Liter’.]

4. Dimensions of mould used in standard proctor compaction test is

a) Dia 4 inches, and height 4.6 inches
b) Dia 4.6 inches, and height 4 inches
c) Dia 4.3 inches, and height 4.6 inches
d) Dia 4 inches, and height 4.3 inches

5. How many blows of rammer are recommended for each layer in case of a standard proctor test?

a) 15
b) 25
c) 27
d) 35

b) 25

6. The weight of the rammer used in the standard proctor compaction test is

a) 1.5 lb
b) 2.5 lb
c) 3.5 lb
d) 5.5 lb

d) 5.5 lb

7. In standard proctor test, the rammer is allowed to fall under gravity from a height of

a) 8 inches
b) 12 inches
c) 14 inches
d) 18 inches

b) 12 inches

8. The weight of the rammer used in case of modified proctor test is

a) 5.5 lb
b) 6.6 lb
c) 10 lb
d) 12 lb

d) 12 lb

9. In modified proctor test, the rammer is allowed to fall under gravity from a height of

a) 8 inches
b) 12 inches
c) 14 inches
d) 18 inches

d) 18 inches

Soil Stabilization – MCQ

Penetration Tests and Soil Sample Exploration – MCQ

8 Factors Affecting The Compaction Of Soil

Field Compaction Methods of Soil and Equipment Use

# Different Symbols used for Electrical Fittings and Installation

## Different Symbols used for Electrical Fittings and Installation

1. Switch Plate or Switch Board

2. Telephone Point

3. Ceiling Light

4. Light Plug Point

5. Power Plug Point

6. Ceiling Fan

7. Wall Light or Bracket Light

8. 4′ – 0″ Tube Light

9. Call bell or Buzzer

10. Exhaust Fan

11. Bracket Fan

12. Aerial

13. Socket Outlet for Tele-Communication

14. Two Way Switch

15. One Way Switch

16. Earth Point

17. Horn or Hooter

18. Bulk Head Fixture – Ceiling

19. Bulk Head Fixture on Wall

20. Distribution Board

21. Meter

22. Fan Regulator

23. Fuse

24. Wire

25. Wire Connection

26. Wire Crossing

28. Batten Holder

29. Two Pin Socket

30. Three Pin Socket

31. D.C. Supply

32. A.C. Supply

33. Bracket Holder

34. Single Pole Switch

35. Double Pole Switch

36. Push Button

37. Kitcat Fuse

38. Main Switch

39. Battery