Month: November 2021

# Widening of Gauge on Curves – Reasons, Rules and Example

## Widening of Gauge on Curves

There are several reasons for widening the gauge length in the case of a sharp curve.

➡ Due to the loss of contact between the wheel and rail in the trailing position.

➡ Due to the tendency of the inner wheels to slip in the backward direction. At the same time, the tendency of the outer wheels to skid in a forward direction.

➡ Due to the rigidity of the wheelbase, it is sometimes found on the curve that the rails are tilted outwards so that the actual gauge is more than the theoretical value.

➡ The centrifugal force which is acting in the outward direction tries to take the vehicle outward direction.

To overcome all the above reasons, some widening is required on the gauge on the curve.

### How to find out the extra width of gauge required on curve?

There are several formulas that may be used to find out the extra width of the gauge on curve.

#### Rule: 1

The extra width of gauge (d) = $\frac{(B+L)^{2} \times 125}{R}$

Where,

d = extra-wide of gauge on curve (in ‘mm’)
B = the rigid wheel base (in ‘m’)
L = Lap of flange (in ‘m’) = $2\times \sqrt{(D+h)h}$
R = Radius of curve (in ‘m’)
D = Diameter of wheel (in ‘m’)
h = Depth of wheel flange below rail (in ‘m’)

#### Rule: 2

First, half the wheelbase and then multiply with lap of flange. After that, this result is to be divided by the radius of the curve plus half the gauge. And finally, multiply the result by 3000 and then the outcome will be the extra wide required in mm. All the above units will be in m.

### Mathematical Example

The wheelbase is 4.724 m of a vehicle moving on a broad gauge(B.G). The diameter of the wheels is 1524 mm and the flanges project 32 mm below the top of rail. Calculate the extra wide of gauge required by using rule 1 and 2, where the radius of the curve is 165 m.

Solution: by using rule 1

We know, d = $\frac{(B+L)^{2} \times 125}{R}$

Where,

B = 4.724 m.
R = 165 m.
D = 1524 mm = 1.524 m.
h = 32 mm = 0.032 m.

L = $2\times \sqrt{(1.524+0.032)0.032}$ = 0.446 m.

Now, put all the values in the above equation

d = $\frac{(4.724+0.446)^{2} \times 125}{165}$ = 20.24 mm or, 20 mm.

Solution: by using rule 2

↣ First half the wheel base: B/2 = 4.724/2 = 2.362

↣ Then multiply with lap of flange: 2.362 × L = 2.362 × 0.446 = 1.053

↣ Then divide this result by the radius of the curve plus half the gauge: $\frac{1.053}{R+ \frac{1.676}{2}}$

= $\frac{1.053}{165+ \frac{1.676}{2}}$

= 0.00635

[Note: The length of the broad gauge is 1.676 m.]

↣ Then multiply the above result by 3000: 0.00635 × 3000 = 19.05 mm Or, 19 mm.

Railway Gauge

Factors Affecting the Adoption of a Particular Gauge

# Different Types of Bricks Used in Construction Work

Human ancient history has witnessed some great monuments and engineering marvels which were considered impossible at that time period.

Our ancestors, nearly thousands of years ago, were using techniques that are still a mystery in the modern day, but something was still common in most of these structures which acts as a link between modern and ancient engineering. “Brick” is that link.

Humans have been using bricks for almost thousands of years and they are still one of the most important materials in any construction.

It is believed that brick was invented around 7000 BC, and it is the oldest known building material to mankind. Even though it is ancient, bricks are the number one choice in any construction assignment.

It is also one of the most durable materials and very versatile. For better efficiency bricks should be smaller in size and should have manageable weight for the labourers to pick the bricks effortlessly.

Bigger bricks are made for thicker walls. Historically, it was believed that bigger bricks were necessary for colder regions, while smaller bricks are economical and efficient in warm climatic regions.

A correct brick can be picked by observing its colour, surface smoothness, density, weight, absorption, pore structure, thermal characteristics and fire resistance.

A slightly bigger brick requires less mortar and time, which reduces cost. The use of brick has declined due to concerns about earthquake resistance.

To overcome this problem bricks along with steel reinforcements are used to make better protection against earthquakes. This type of brickwork is well known as reinforcement brickwork.

Generally, the compressive strengths of the bricks range from 1.5 to 12 N/mm2.

The process of making brick is still the same as it was first produced. The first brick was made in warm climates, clay mud was shaped into bricks and then sun-dried for hardening.

After this, the concept and process of fire bricks were discovered, which is relevant still today.

Bricks are used to construct roads, walls, and mostly for the construction of buildings. During the industrial era, the production of bricks started massively. Bricks were preferred over stones because of their lightweight and economical prowess.

Mostly bricks were produced by the hand-molding method until Henry Clayton patented his first brick-making machine. This led to a revolution in the brick industry because this machine was producing 25,000 bricks per day without any detailed supervision.

## Different Types of Bricks

Bricks are versatile and easy to use which is the main reason for their popularity all over the world. It is manufactured generally in a rectangular shape using clay. Today, there are different types of bricks used in construction, depending upon the materials used, like concrete, lime, ash and many more. Let us take a look at its types.

1. SUN-DRIED BRICKS
2. BURNT CLAY BRICKS
3. FLY ASH BRICKS
4. CONCRETE BRICKS
5. ENGINEERING BRICKS
6. CALCIUM SILICATE BRICKS
7. POROTHERM BRICKS

### 1. SUN-DRIED BRICKS

These are simple mud bricks, dried in the Sun for hardening. It is the most important building material that has been used since ancient times. These bricks are very similar to Adobe. Adobes are mostly used in Arizona and New Mexico.

The way to make it is very simple. At first, a shallow hole is prepared by the workers. Then earth and water are mixed thoroughly into the hole. Straw or loam is added during mixing to get sticky mixed.

When the clay achieved the desirable firmness, it is poured and shoved into open moulds and then taken down properly. These moulded bricks are then left to dry thoroughly in the Sun.

In ancient times, bricks were generally sun-dried because of the unavailability of timber fuel.

### 2. BURNT CLAY BRICKS

These types of bricks are the most widely used brick, and one of the most ancient bricks used as construction material. These bricks have a much superior quality compared to sun-dried bricks. They are used for all types of works such as walls, columns, foundations, etc.

They are persistent to moisture, insects, and erosion. They create a good environment for the room and have medium to high compressibility. These bricks can be made with factory sophisticated methods, simple labour methods, or a range of mechanized technologies.

Labor-intensive methods are most suitable for rural areas, as the demand for these bricks is limited because of the lesser population. Handmade bricks would generally lack in quality and compressive strength. Handmade bricks are most likely to have irregular dimensions.

But, these labour-intensive handmade bricks are economical and require very little investment capital and transportation cost. The four most important ingredients for making bricks are suitable clay, water, fuel, and manpower. Burnt bricks are classified into four different types;

#### First-class Bricks:

The first-class bricks have all the superior quality of bricks. These bricks are table molded and are burnt in kilns.

=First-class bricks have smooth surfaces.
= They are rigid.
= The edges are sharp,
= They are very durable.
= They have superior strength and compressibility. Read more – Characteristics of First Class Bricks

#### Second class Bricks:

The Second-class bricks are inferior to first-class bricks in quality and strength. They have a moderate quality. These bricks have somewhat rough surfaces and irregular shapes as compared to first-class bricks. Few cracks could also be observed with keen eyes which is proof of its moderate quality which is inferior to first-class bricks. These bricks are used where it is covered with a layer of plaster. Read more – Characteristics of Second Class Bricks.

#### Third-class Bricks:

The third-class Bricks are mostly used for temporary structures. These bricks are very poor in quality. They are more porous i.e. they absorb rainwater more than any other bricks available. These bricks are inferior to both second-class and first-class bricks. They have rough surfaces and edges are most of the time broken or uneven.

#### Fourth class Bricks:

These bricks are mostly disregarded bricks. They have irregular, rough, over-burnt surfaces, and have darker colors. Fourth-class bricks are mostly used as aggregates. They are used as aggregates for concrete, floors, or even roads.

### 3. FLY ASH BRICKS

A very unconventional type of brick, which is made from industrial waste such as fly ash, cement, or stone dust. They have gained popularity over clay bricks because of their environment-friendly aspects. They are very attractive and have a pleasant external appearance.

They have the same colour as cement and are uniform in size. Due to its uniform shape, it reduces the use of mortar by almost 30-45 %. A plaster coat is not necessary, putty or POP can be applied directly over the brick surface.

Fly ash bricks have a very high compressive strength. Due to its high strength, minimum breakage and wastage take place during transportation.

Fly ash bricks do not contribute any extra weight to the applied structure and provide better protection against earthquakes. It improves its strength over time and gives sufficient stability to the structure. They absorb less heat. As a result, you experience a cooler house in summer.

### 4. CONCRETE BRICKS

In general, bricks made of concrete are called concrete bricks. Concrete is a mixture of cement and aggregate like sand, cinder, ash, etc. These bricks are formed in moulds and cured properly before using them. Concrete bricks are very versatile as they are made according to the required size.

They are generally used in making walls that may be internal or external. Concrete bricks provide an outstanding aesthetic external appearance. There are wide varieties of concrete bricks which are classified according to the material used as aggregate.

In the USA, cinder is used as aggregate material, and hence they are called cinder blocks. In the United Kingdom, it is called breeze blocks, as the breeze or ash is used as an aggregate material. In the Philippines, concrete bricks are commonly referred to as hollow bricks. Meanwhile, in New Zealand and Canada, they are called concrete blocks.

Some companies use clinker as the aggregate material so, it is also known as clinker blocks. Choice of aggregates includes industrial wastes, ash or bottom ash, recycled consumer glass, etc. Concrete blocks can be shaped as traditional masonry style or big staggered blocks.

Most of the concrete bricks are made hollow. These hollow caves in concrete bricks are made to reduce weight and form an interconnected space between brickworks. Concrete bricks are generally referred to their size by width, which come in modular sizes of 4-inch, 6-inch, 8-inch, and 12-inch. Read Also: 12 Different Types of Brick Cuts Used in Brick Masonry.

### 5. ENGINEERING BRICKS

Engineering bricks are typically used where low water porosity, higher strength, and resistance to acids are of utmost necessity. Engineering bricks are defined as, “Fire-clay bricks that have a dense and strong semi-vitreous body and conform to defined limits for water absorption and compressive strength”.

The superior quality of engineering bricks or Class A engineering bricks is generally blue because of the higher firing temperature. Class B engineering bricks are generally red in colour. With respect to strength, Class A engineering bricks have a very high strength of 125N/mm2 and absorb water as low as 4.5%.

Class B engineering bricks have a strength of around 75 N/mm2 and water absorption of less than 7%. Engineering bricks are generally made to improve the structural intensity and technical strength of the building.

Engineering bricks do not provide any external aesthetic look but are mostly useful in the practicality of the structure. If you need to have a better look and feel of your building, then choose clay brick to enhance the look. But, engineering bricks are most important for your building’s strength and water resistance properties.

Generally, engineering bricks are used in places where strength and damp-proof constitution is needed like – manholes, sewers, retaining walls, and general groundwork. Engineering bricks have smooth surfaces and perforations throughout the body. They are widely available in blue color (Class A) and red (Class B).

### 6. CALCIUM SILICATE BRICKS

They are popularly known as sand-lime bricks. Calcium silicate bricks are made of sand and lime. Calcium silicate bricks are mainly used for ornamental works and other masonry works. Sand lime bricks are very popular in European countries as well as in Africa and Australia. In the case of India, the usage of calcium silicate bricks are most familiar in the state of Kerala. Calcium silicate bricks contain about 88-92% of sand and around 4% of clay.

Before making these bricks, it should be considered that the sand used should be free from any impurities like organic matter, soluble salts, etc. The clay is used to provide a smoother surface and it help the brick in pressing. The proportion of lime content in calcium silicate bricks ranges from 8-to 12%. The water used should be pure and should not contain impurities like soluble salts.

Generally, some pigments like Carbon black, Ochre, Iron oxide, etc. are added to provide some color. During the manufacturing of calcium silicate bricks, firstly proper proportions of sand, lime, and pigments(0.3% to 3%) are mixed thoroughly and about 3-5% of water is added. With the help of a machine called a rotary table press, the mixture is then molded into bricks, using mechanical pressure to press the bricks. The pressure ranges from around 31.5 to 63N/mm2.

After this process is completed, the bricks are placed into autoclaves for the final stage. In the autoclave, saturated steam pressure around 1.6 N/mm2 is used with rising temperature. These conditions initiate the reaction process. Silica in sand and calcium in lime reacts to form a crystal-like compound known as calcium hypo silicate. This whole process takes around 7 to 16 hours.

The color and texture of these bricks are uniform and required very less mortar for plastering work. They have 10 N/mm2 compressive strength. So, they are suitable for multistoried buildings as well. Calcium silicate can also be seen as blocks and tiles, and provide flexibility to workers to attain desirable shapes and designs. As they are free from impurities, so the effects of such impurities are also less. Solar heat is absorbed less by these bricks. These bricks provide fire resistance and water-repellent properties as well.

More coming soon…..

Brick Flooring

# 50 Construction Tools List, Names, Images & Uses – Building Construction

Constructing, creating, or making anything is not an easy task like destroying something. When it comes to the building structure, definitely it requires some tools for assistance. There are numerous construction tools that are widely used for fulfilling construction purposes.

Since ancient times, people have been using different types of construction tools to build their shelters and other necessary structures.

Tools include various categories like hand tools, power tools, and machine tools. With experts’ supervision, these tools are used for development purposes. Some tools have specified functions while some are considered to be multifunctional as well.

Proper training is required while using the tools for personal safeguard and from causing damage. Quality, weight, comfortability, appropriateness to the job, security, maintenance, duration of use, and damage potential are the basic criteria that should be considered for selecting construction tools for better usage.

## List of Construction Tools

The list of 50 construction tools are as follows:

1. Chisel
2. Brick Hammer
3. Circular Saw
4. Boning Rods
5. Bump Cutter
6. Chain Lewis and Pin Lewis
7. Digging bar
8. Drill machine
9. End Frames
10. Float Trowel
11. Hand saw
13. Hoe
15. Measuring tape
16. Jack plane
17. Crowbar
18. Measuring wheel
19. Measuring box
20. Plumb bob
21. Mason’s square
22. Pickaxe
24. Sledge Hammer
25. Earth Rammer
26. Scratchers
27. Polisher
28. Putty Knife
29. Plumb Rule
30. Safety Boots(Rubber boots)
31. Safety Helmet
32. Wheelbarrow
33. Wedge
34. Spirit level
35. Straight edge Brushes
36. Gloves
37. Safety Glass
38. Bevel
39. Pencil or chalk
40. Trowel
41. Tile Cutter
42. Water level
43. Scoop tool
44. Wire brush
45. Binding Hook
46. Safety Belt
47. Nail
48. Broom
49. Utility knife
50. Wirecutter

Here, in this article, we are going to discuss the basic construction tools that are considered essential assistants for construction. Also, Images/pictures and usage of all these tools have been provided.

### 1. Chisel

A chisel is used to remove the extended concrete from the concrete surface. But, it is mostly used for woodwork. It has a sharp cutting edge that helps to cut extra materials from the original material. The price of a chisel is around $5 to$15.

### 2. Brick Hammer

A brick hammer is a construction tool that is mostly used for cutting the brick in the expected size. Same time, the other edge of the hammer is used to break the brick as well as to push the bricks back to their position in response to the course line. A good quality brick hammer costs about $18 to$ 35. Read Also: 12 Different Types of Brick Cuts Used in Brick Masonry.

### 29. Plumb Rule

A plumb rule is a construction tool consisting of a straight wooden board with uniform edges. It is used to check the verticality of a wall. For this purpose, a “plumb bob” is suspended from the upper edge of the plumb rule and a groove is provided at the center of the plumb rule.

At the time of checking the verticality of the wall, the plum rule is laid vertically on the wall. At that time, the position of the plumb bob should be in the center of the plumb rule. Otherwise, it will be considered as not vertical.

### 30. Rubber Boots

Rubber boots are safety tools made of rubber that is mostly used for safety purpose during construction work. There are several chemicals present in the cement, admixture, etc. It is really harmful to human skin. Therefore, it is always advised to wear rubber boots during work to protect your legs from direct contact with chemicals, and also from physical accidents.

### 31. Safety Helmet

Safety Helmet is another safety tool used in construction work. There is a possibility of something falling from a height during work. Safety Helmet is one that helps to protect your head from such incidents. The price of such helmets is about $20 to$75.

### 32. Wheelbarrow

A wheelbarrow is a conveying tool consisting of a metal-made tray connected with a metal frame. There are one or two wheels at the front and two handles at the back of the wheelbarrow. It is generally used for transporting the bulk quantity of sand, cement, concrete mix, etc. at the demand site.

### 33. Wedge

The wedge is a small cutting tool. It is a small blade made of solid metal. It is used for cutting and breaking rock surfaces.

### 34. Spirit level

It is a rectangular-shaped small box made up of wood or hard plastic. It comes with a bubble tube placed in the middle. This bubble tube is partially filled up with alcohol and thus an air bubble is formed in it. Spirit level is used for checking the level of the surface. When the bubble is settled in the middle of the tube, it is considered that the surface is leveled properly.

### 35. Straight edge Brushes

This is a special type of brush that is used for providing finishing to the plaster surfaces specifically at the edges and corners of the wall.

### 36. Gloves

There are quite common chances to injure your hand during construction work. Therefore it is very important to protect your hand from any damage. Hand gloves are safety tools that can protect your hand from any incident. It also protects your hand from direct contact with several chemicals present in cement, admixture, etc.

### 37. Safety Glass

Safety Glass This is another safety tool used for protecting the human eye from entering foreign debris in it. It is commonly used in welding work, carpentry work, and during cutting tiles, steel, and other materials.

### 38. Bevel

A bevel is a tool used to duplicate an existing angle.

### 39. Pencil or chalk

A pencil or chalk is a marking tool used to mark or point out some things according to their importance.

### 40. Trowel

The trowel is a very important construction tool. It is used both for brick and stone masonry work. When the brick wall is constructed, it is used to lift and spread mortar on the bed. It is also sometimes used for tapping the brick on the bed as well as rough cutting of soft brick.

### 41. Tile Cutter

A tile cutter is a tool that is used to cut tiles to the required size. It is the most important tool for the tile installation worker.

### 42. Water level

The water level consists of a plastic pipe filled up with water. It is used to measure the height of an item subject to others. In other words, it is a tool used for determining the level of two spots that are at a distance from each other.

### 43. Scoop tool

A scoop is a tool used to pick up a particular quantity of materials for testing or other purposes.

### 44. Wire brush

The wire brush is used to remove slag and spatter from the metal surface and is also used to clean up old and faded paint from the surface.

### 45. Binding Hook

The binding hook is used to bind two steel bars at the joint section by using binding wire.

### 46. Safety Belt

It is used to prevent sudden fall of the worker during work at high altitude.

### 47. Nail

Nail is mostly used to fasten two objects with each other, but it is also used as a tool in the construction fields like pointing out a spot, marking a location, holding threads end, etc.

### 48. Broom

A broom is a tool used to clean surfaces.

### 49. Utility knife

The utility knife is a versatile tool typically used for various cutting jobs. It consists of a sharp blade which has fixed within the handle. They are widely used in industries such as construction, crafts, packaging, and woodworking. A utility knife is used to cut cable, rope, plastic sheet, etc.

### 50. Wirecutter

Wire Cutter is a highly versatile tool that is usually used by electricians, and technicians. This hand tool is used mainly for cutting different types of wire. Whether you’re working on a small home project or a complex electrical job or a large dwelling project, having a reliable wire cutter with you can make the job more efficient.

### Other Construction Tools

At last, it can be said that, along with the 50 construction tools discussed above, many other tools are there which are essential for the construction purpose during the present era. Some of the other tools are screws, rubbers, safety belts, vacuum blower, etc.

In the modern era, many construction tools are used for multiple purposes. Moreover, the variation and ranges have also been widened which is definitely a good sign for the development. Day by day, many companies are coming forward for making good quality construction tools to compete in the market as well. Even online purchase is also possible for these types of equipment which are coming out to be very useful for the builders to carry forward the necessary works.

Heavy Construction Equipment

Principles of Building Planning

# Smart Ways To Enhance Your Home Look for Festive Season

## Smart Ways To Enhance Your Home Look for Festive Season

India is the country of festivals as they come up one after the other, and we must always be active to keep our house tidy. Whether you are planning to renovate or just simply decorate with some tweaks here and there, the festive season serves up a plethora of reasons to give your home the long waited attention and care that it needs. Here are some ideas that might interest you and kick your creative space of mind:

What people tend to not understand is that there is beauty in simplicity too. This often means that less is more, and simple, clean and classy designs improve the look and feel of your home.

Decorating or renovating does not always mean hurdling up on some theme accents and making your home look like a restaurant or pub or heritage site. Instead, try to have a clean, elegant, and minimalistic theme. Read Also: How to Clean Your House Fast.

Festivals are joyful and represent positivity and happiness, and what’s more appropriate than colors? If you are done with dull and drag interiors and items then it is the perfect time to replace them with some colorful and bright positivity in your home. Read Also: 40 Paint Colors for Living Room to Give Colorful Vibes.

Colorful interiors not only look beautiful but also enhance the aesthetic aspect of your room and your life. You can use lacquered glass in your ideas to add some permanent colors to your doors, wall panels, etc.

### 3. Light up in Your Home

Diwali is the festival of light, so why don’t you try to add mood lighting and LED warm home decor to add some more light to your festive life? Good lighting can change everything. Use your own creativity and express your personality through decorating your living space with lights.

You can use mood lighting or even beautiful chandeliers to enhance the look and feel. There are a variety of LED lights or decorative lights available both in online and offline markets.

### 4. Fill up with Reflections

One of the most ancient objects used in home decorations is a mirror. Mirrors not only help in creating a positive environment but also make your home look big and elegant.

If you place a mirror opposite to a window it would reflect more light around the house and make the space more alive. If you place a mirror right at the end of your corridor, it will make its look huge than it really is.

### 5. Scrap out the Extras

The fewer objects you have in your home the more it feels airier and big. Whereas packed up rooms feel dull and suffocating and they do not allow much light to make your home comfortable and welcoming. If your home is clogged up with unnecessary furniture and décor, then you should think about clearing the space and making it more alive.

### 6. Change the Look of the Walls

Nothing will have a quicker effect than painting your walls in a light, neutral color pallet. Walls are the first and the largest space you should consider to work on this festival season. They almost cover up the whole space and contribute a lot towards the look and feel.

You can also try out cool and classy-looking wallpapers with nice designs and an elegant look and feel. Painting your walls should be on your primary list of décor changes this season. Read Also: 5 Major Types of Wallpaper.

### 7. Hang Memories and Paintings

Don’t waste your free wall spaces instead use it strategically to show your life and add some personal touch to it. Use portraits or memorable pictures that are close to you, or memories of your childhood or your family and hang those pictures strategically and creatively making a pattern or a cool design that looks elegant. You can also buy some paintings and hang them in free spaces. Life-like paintings will add a modern feel to your home.

### 8. Bring Nature in your Drawing Room

Due to our modern lifestyle, we are totally detached from mother nature and natural beauties and to overcome this situation, you can place some decorative green plants to make your home more relaxing and stimulating.

Decorative indoor plants can bring some natural angle into your home. You can place small bamboo or cactus plant in your living space or you can decorate your bedroom with small plants or a bunch of plants. If you are blessed with a balcony, what else do you need to build your own small-scale indoor garden?

### 9. External look and feel

I guess you already know that the first impression is the last impression. So, why don’t you think about changing the covers and bedsheets? If you plan strategically, you can save thousands of bucks on new furniture.

If have an old sofa just change the external cover instead of buying a new one, it will not only save your money but you will also get a new furniture. These slight tweaks or improvisations are really effective and give you a new look each and every time.

Creating a perfect home is an art, and we all are artists in our own way. This festive season, make your home look airy, spacious, and classy and overwhelm your friends and family and give them a new perspective towards life just like your new-looking home. Read Also: Best Online Furniture Stores 2023.