6 Types of Classification of Gradient – Ruling, Limiting, Exceptional, Minimum, Average and Floating Gradient24th September 2017
6 Types of Classification of Gradient
The gradient is divided into the following 6 categories
- Ruling gradient
- Limiting gradient
- Exceptional gradient
- Minimum gradient
- Average gradient
- Floating gradient
Following 6 types of the gradient are described below
1. Ruling gradient
The gradient usually adopted while making the road alignment is called the ruling gradient. It is the maximum gradient within which the designer attempts to design the vertical profile of a road. It is also known as design gradient
2. Limiting gradient
The gradient steeper than the ruling gradient, which may be used for a limited Road length, is called limiting gradient or maximum gradient. It is used where the topography of place compels adopting a steeper gradient than the ruling gradient to minimize the cost of road construction.
3. Exceptional gradient
The gradient steeper than the limiting gradient which may be used in short length of road, only in an extraordinary situation is called exponential gradient. This type of gradient is adopted only in a very difficult situation and for a short length not exceeding 100 m at a stretch.
4. Minimum gradient
The minimum desirable slope essential for effective drainage of rainwater from the road surface is called minimum gradient. The desirable minimum gradient for this purpose is 0.5 % if the side drains are lined and 1 % if the side drains are unlined.
5. Average gradient
It is the ratio of total rise or fall to the horizontal distance between any two points along the alignment of the road.
6. Floating gradient
The gradient on which a motor vehicle moving with a constant speed continues to descend with the same speed without any application of power brakes is called floating gradient.