## 6 Types of Classification of Gradient

**The gradient is divided into the following 6 categories**

- Ruling gradient
- Limiting gradient
- Exceptional gradient
- Minimum gradient
- Average gradient
- Floating gradient

*The following 6 types of the gradient are described below:*

**1. Ruling gradient**

The **gradient** usually adopted while making the road alignment is called the ruling gradient. It is the maximum gradient within which the designer attempts to design the vertical profile of a road. It is also known as design gradient. As per IRC, the recommended value of ruling gradient for plain or rolling terrain is 1 in 30 or 3.3 %.

**To Read More Visit** – **Recommended Gradient As per IRC**

**2. Limiting gradient**

The gradient steeper than the ruling gradient, which may be used for a limited Road length, is called limiting gradient or maximum gradient. It is used where the topography of a place compels adopting a steeper gradient than the ruling gradient to minimize the cost of road construction.

**3. Exceptional gradient**

The gradient steeper than the limiting gradient which may be used in a short length of the road, only in an extraordinary situation is called exponential gradient. This type of gradient is adopted only in a very difficult situation and for a short length not exceeding 100 m at a stretch. As per IRC, the recommended value of **Exceptional gradient** for plain or rolling terrain is 1 in 15 or 6.7 %.

**4. Minimum gradient**

The minimum desirable slope essential for effective drainage of rainwater from the road surface is called minimum gradient. The desirable minimum gradient for this purpose is 0.5 % if the side drains are lined and 1 % if the **side drains** are unlined.

**5. Average gradient**

It is the ratio of total rise or fall to the horizontal distance between any two points along the alignment of the road.

**6. Floating gradient**

The gradient on which a motor vehicle moving at a constant speed continues to descend at the same speed without any application of power brakes is called floating gradient.

**Types of Gradient** – Audio

**Types of Gradient** – **Video**

### FAQs

#### What is meant by ‘1’ in ‘n’ gradient?

In general, 1 refers to the vertical rise, and n refers to the horizontal distance(run). For ‘n’ units horizontal distance the verticle rise will be ‘1’ unit.

#### How do you find the gradient of a road?

The gradient in the roads can be represented as a percentage or as 1 in n. First of all, you need to calculate the horizontal distance corresponding to the vertical rise. For example, if the measured horizontal distance(run) is ‘4’ units and the corresponding verticle rise is ‘1’ unit, then the gradient of the road will be 1 in 4. If you want to convert it into a percentage, then divide the rise by run, and multiply by 100. In the above case, it will be [(1/4)*100] = 25 %.

#### What is the value of limiting gradient for steep terrain?

The recommended value of limiting gradient for steep terrain is 1 in 14.3 or 7%.

#### What is the value of limiting gradient for Rolling terrain?

The recommended value of limiting gradient for rolling terrain is 1 in 20 or 5%.

#### What is the value of exceptional gradient for rolling terrain?

The recommended value of exceptional gradient for rolling terrain is 1 in 15 or 6.7%.

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