Dead End System
Dead end system is one method of the layout of distribution pipes. This method is also known as a tree system.
It consists of one supply main from which sub-mains are taken. From the sub-mains, the branch lines are provided from which service connections are given to the consumers.
The dead-end system of the layout is adopted in localities which have developed in a haphazard manner.
Advantages of Dead End System
The advantages of the dead end system are:
1. The discharge and pressure at any point in the distribution system can be easily calculated.
2. The design calculation is simple and easy.
3. Lesser number of cut-off valves is required in this system.
4. Laying of pipes is easy and simple.
5. It is cheap and can be extended or expanded easily.
Disadvantages of Dead End System
The disadvantages of the dead end system are:
1. During repairs, a large portion of the distribution area is affected.
2. There is numerous dead end in this system, which prevent the free circulation of water.
3. The water may be polluted at the dead end due to its stagnation.
4. It gives limited supply during the fighting.