Different Types of Heavy Construction Equipment
In ancient times any work depended solely on human and animal power. From time to time several types of new heavy construction equipment have been developed, it not only reduces human effort but also time.
Each project involves cutting the earth, filling the earth, compacting, moving the earth, lifting the excavated earth, and moving a variety of construction materials from one place to another. If the above work quantity is huge, then huge construction machines and other equipment require to consume less time and money. In this article, we will discuss the different types of heavy equipment used in construction work.
6. Clam Shell
8. Dumper Trucks
9. Road Roller
10. Sheep Foot Roller
11. Electric Overhead Crane
12. Whirler Crane
13. Single Cable Rope Way
14. Belt Conveyor
15. Concrete Mixture
16. Pump Crete
17. Concrete Vibrator
19. Basic Shovel
20. Power Shovel
21. Pile Driving Equipment
A tractor is a machine that is used for multiple purposes like hauling, moving earth, transporting materials etc. The tractor is not only used for construction purposes, but also for agricultural, and mining fields. Usually, the tractors are two types. One is a wheeled tractor other is a crawler tractor. In case of light and speedy jobs wheeled tractor is used. On the other hand, a crawler tractor is generally used for heavy-duty. But the movement of a crawler tractor is comparatively lower than a wheeled tractor.
bulldozer is one of the most important machine in the construction field. It is mostly used to push any things from their current position. Although, it is a multipurpose machine and can perform a number of operations. Dozers may be angle dozer, tree dozer, tilt dozer, pus dozer.
Generally, the price of a bulldozer varies from country to country. In the case of the USA and UK, the price of a single bulldozer varies from $25,000 to $250,000. The price depends on the capacity and power of the machine. The most commonly purchased models price is around $ 70,000 to $145,000.
Graders are also known as motor graders or road graders. The Grader is one of the most important machine mostly used in road construction projects. It is used to level the ground surface on which road is to be constructed. It has a blade below the framework as shown in fig.
This blade can be lowered, tilted or rotated as required. Grader is also used to remove snow from any existing roads. Scarifier, elevator and roller are the other attachment which can be used by this machine. The grader may be classified as a towed grader and motorized grader.
Towed grader is a small size of grade which is drawn with a tractor. On the other hand, a motor grader is a fast-moving and self-propulsive machine. Usually, the speed of a motor grader is around 15 to 40 km/h, with a horsepower range from 90 to 300 H.P.
Read Also: Suitability of Various Compaction Equipment
This construction machine consists of a large bucket called scraper. This bucket is attached to a tractor. The scraper is such type of equipment that can dig, load, haul and discharging the soil or other construction materials in a uniform layer. The wheels of this machine do some compaction work also.
During discharging the materials, it keeps moving at a constant speed and thus soil is also spread automatically and uniformly. This machine is huge in size and thus required more area to operate. For this reason, it is not possible to use for the small size of the workplace.
The scraper bowl or bucket has a cutting edge or blade at its button and it is able to dig the earth to a depth of around 25 cm.
Scrapers may be available in the following types.
⇒ Crawler drawn Scraper.
⇒ Two axle scraper.
⇒ Three axle scraper
Dragline is another type of heavy construction equipment mostly used for digging the earth in a large depth or below the ground level. It consists of a long boom and a bucket. The bucket which is the digging tool is suspended from the boom ends with the help of a cable.
When there is a need to remove soil or debris from a larger depth, This machine will be the best choice for this work. This machine can perform its work even if it is not close to the pit because it has a long reach due to its boom.
There are three types of dragline, they are
A. Crawler mounted: – The speed of this type of dragline is very low but can perform on soft ground, and suitable for a large project.
B. Wheel-mounted: – In this type of dragline, travel speed is high and suitable for firm ground.
C. Truck-mounted: – It has a high travel speed. This machine is suitable for fir ground and scattered jobs.
This construction equipment is very useful for digging the canal bed, clearing ditches, making very high embankments etc.
The clamshell is nothing but an excavator, which are generally used for digging earth above or below the ground level. This machine is suitable only for soft to medium-hard soil. It consists of a bucket, boom, and a travel unit. Bucket which is loosely attached at the end of the boom with the help of a cable. This bucket can be lowered or lifted vertically with the help of the cable.
It does not have any drag cable but only a set of closing line and a set of hoist line. In this machine, the bucket consists of two halves, which hinged together at the top and provided with sharp teeth at the lower end.
During the digging and filling operation, bucket is allowed to reach on the top of the materials which are to be dug. Then bucket is lowered with shells open over the materials and then closing the shells by using closing line. The bucket is then hoisted and swung to the position of dumping and the materials are dropped.
It can be used for moving large size of boulders from their current position. It is also prefered for jobs where perfect dumping is required. It is a very usefull construction machine where the space limit is restrictied like excavating foundation trenches, digging pits etc.
Backhoe is also known as drag shovel or pull shovel. It is a compromise between dipper shovel and dragline. In the case of close range work, it is superior to the dragline and power shovel. It is suitable for excavating stiff materials.
It consists of a bucket, stick, boom, and a moving unit. The bucket is also known as a dipper, which consists of teeths at the end position. It has a drag cable and also a set of hoist line.
The output of this machine is somewhat similar to the power shovel. If the excavation is to be done near the machine, then it performs better than a power shovel, since the time of the cycle decreases.
Generally, the price of a Backhoe varies from $25,000 to $135,000. This is depends on their size. Small size of backhoe price is around $25,000 to $48,000, and larger size of backhoe price is around $45,000 to $135,000.
8. Dumper Truck
A dumper truck is nothing but a truck including automatic unloading devices. This is one of the most important construction machines from the transportation point of view.
It is suitable for level as well as rough types of roads. This type of truck is very effective for work where time is a very important factor, as they have high speed and quick unloading facilitates.
In this type of truck, loading is done by manually or by means of mechanically. But, unloading is done automatically with the help of a device that is fitted with the truck.
They are heavy-duty trucks with a strong body and are used for transporting construction materials like – boulder, murram, etc. Usually, the capacity of dumper trucks varies from 50 to 55 tonnes.
Details coming soon…