# Different Word Symbols Commonly Used in Civil Engineering

## Different Word Symbols Commonly Used in Civil Engineering

Following are some word symbols commonly used in civil engineering:

1. V = Ventilator.
2. W = Window.

3. D = Door or Overall Depth or Dia
4. f = Stress.

5. r = Radius of Gyration.
6. Z = Section Modulus.

7. e = Eccentricity.
8. I = Moment of Inertia.

9. E = Modulus of Elasticity.
10. d = Effective depth or Dia.

11. L or l = Length.
12. B or b = Width.

13. T or t = Thickness.
14. Pbc = Permissible stress in bending compression.

15. Pbt = Permissible stress in bending tension.
16. Pc = Permissible stress in axial compression.

17. Pt = Permissible stress in axial tension. 18. P/F – Providing and Fixing.
19. P/L = Providing & Laying.

20. C/C = Center to center.
21. C/o = Construction of.

22. F/E = Fabrication and Erection.
23. N/S = Near Side.

24. F/S = Far Side.
25. B/F = Both faces.

26. N/F = Near Face.
27. F/F = Far Face.

28. C/F = Carried Forward.
29. L/J = Laying and Jointing.

30. l/r = Slenderness Ratio.
31. U/S = Upstream.

32. D/S = Downstream.
33. i/c = Including.

34. P/F – Providing and Fixing.
35. r.m = running meter.

36. No. = Number.
37. ɸ = Dia. of Plain M.S Bar.

38. Φ = Dia. of TOR Steel Bar.
39. @ = At the rate of.
40. ⊥ = Perpendicular to.

Others:

τ = Tau(τ) is the symbol of shear stress.

σ = Sigma(σ) is the symbol of normal stress.

ρ = Rho(ρ) is the symbol of density.

ε = Epsilon(ε) symbol is used to represent strain.