Factors Affecting Infiltration Capacity
Following are the 8 major factors that affect the infiltration capacity:
1. Texture of Soil
The texture of soil influence the rate of infiltration of water. Infiltration rate is high for the coarse-grained texture of the soil. But for the fine-grained texture of the soil, the water infiltration rate is very slow.
2. Groundwater Table
Presence of the groundwater table is very close to the ground, reduces the rate of water infiltration.
3. Rainfall Intensity
If the rainfall intensity is heavy, the impact of water causes mechanical compaction resulting in a decrease in the rate of infiltration. But if the same quantity rainfall occurs with low intensity, it increases the infiltration rate.
If the saturated soil temperature is very low, the soil mass becomes impermeable so that the infiltration rate will be low.
We know that the flow is related to viscosity, and viscosity of water changes with temperature. If the temperature is high, the viscosity of water will be low, hence the infiltration rate will be more and vice versa.
5. Quality of Water
If the water contains salts and other impurities it reduces infiltration rate due to clogging of soil pores.
6. Content of Soil Moisture
If the surface soil contains moisture, the infiltration rate will be low. But if the surface soil is dry, the rate of infiltration will be more.
Intensive agriculture on the soil surface makes it permeable therefore the rate of infiltration increase.
8. Human Activity
The construction of buildings, playgrounds, roads, railways result in a reduction in infiltration capacity.